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Last Updated: Aug 20, 2021     Views: 175

 

Transcript

 

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Anne Shiell (she/her), Writing Center: Welcome everyone to the writing centers using the meal plan to write and revise academic paragraphs webinar.

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Anne Shiell (she/her), Writing Center: We have a really exciting webinar for you here today, Michael who I will introduce in a moment, is presenting and you can go ahead and skip to the next slide Michael.

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Anne Shiell (she/her), Writing Center: We presented this webinar last month as well and it's a popular one was students, we all love the meal plan and this one today, as I mentioned, is a little special because we have an extra.

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Anne Shiell (she/her), Writing Center: workshop portion that is kind of after the webinar so we have our hour long webinar, as usual, but then we also have a 15 minute workshop afterwards if you'd like to stick around.

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Anne Shiell (she/her), Writing Center: and independently work on some of your own writing using what we learned today.

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Anne Shiell (she/her), Writing Center: So before we dig in a couple of accessibility notes the webinar has closed captions or subtitles available.

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Anne Shiell (she/her), Writing Center: You can turn those on or off by clicking the closed caption button in your zoom toolbar you can also change the settings there if you'd like.

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Anne Shiell (she/her), Writing Center: there's also a live transcript available and can click that same button in your toolbar closed caption live transcript to turn that transcript on or off.

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Anne Shiell (she/her), Writing Center: Note that we will also have a transcript available with the recording after the webinar that we will send out by email and have available on our website as well next slide please Michael.

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Anne Shiell (she/her), Writing Center: Thank you, so a few housekeeping notes, as I mentioned, we are recording the webinar it will be available in our archive and also sent out to you by email.

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Anne Shiell (she/her), Writing Center: We have slides available for you to follow, along with if you would like Michael will be sharing those in the chat box here in a moment.

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Anne Shiell (she/her), Writing Center: to note that the slides are available if you're using the zoom desktop version if you're on a mobile device you won't be able to see or download those slides and we're sorry about that it is a limitation of the zoom platform, but we will send those out by email after the webinar.

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Anne Shiell (she/her), Writing Center: Many of you have been participating in our chat box already thanks for that for introducing yourselves there.

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Anne Shiell (she/her), Writing Center: we're going to have other opportunities to participate in in chat together throughout the webinar and you're also free to ask any questions you'd like in the chat box.

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Anne Shiell (she/her), Writing Center: As we get going here, I will be moderating and answering those chat chat box questions so again at any point feel free to use the chat box.

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Anne Shiell (she/her), Writing Center: We also have some reactions in zoom that you can use if you would like to let us know, if you like, something if you agree, if you would like Michael to speak more slowly or faster i'll be keeping an eye on those reactions as well.

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Anne Shiell (she/her), Writing Center: If you have any technical trouble support that zoom.us is a great website to go to for help.

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Anne Shiell (she/her), Writing Center: And lastly, toward the end of the webinar will be sharing a link with you in the chat box that goes to our feedback survey.

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Anne Shiell (she/her), Writing Center: it's quick it's anonymous and we love hearing from you about your webinar experience, so we can make these webinars the best that we can for you and also hear about.

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Anne Shiell (she/her), Writing Center: What other webinars you'd like us to offer in the future so just a quick plug for that at the beginning again will be sharing that at the end, and thank you in advance for keeping an eye out.

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Anne Shiell (she/her), Writing Center: Next slide Michael Thank you so as i've mentioned Michael de sac, is here with me.

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Anne Shiell (she/her), Writing Center: he's my colleague from the writing Center he's a writing instructor and hopefully you've been lucky enough to have worked with Michael a little bit.

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Anne Shiell (she/her), Writing Center: Perhaps through our paper review service or if you've been to other webinars Michael has been presenting webinars for a long time and i'm really glad to be here with him today.

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Anne Shiell (she/her), Writing Center: i'm and she'll and, as I mentioned, I will be monitoring the chat box throughout, and with that i'll turn it over to you, Michael.

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Michael Dusek: hey awesome.

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Michael Dusek: Thank you for that lovely introduction and and welcome everyone to today's webinar yeah again we're really going to be discussing.

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Michael Dusek: The the meal plan meal plan paragraph organization and I think that this is a really important topic, I think you know.

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Michael Dusek: When you look at the the different elements that go into academic writing I think organization really is is probably is a paramount among these in terms of.

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Michael Dusek: crafting an argument that straightforward and easy for the reader to understand and I think doing that also builds your authority with the reader and shows the reader that.

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Michael Dusek: You know you don't really have anything to hide or that that you can craft a logical argument that's that's really easy to follow so.

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Michael Dusek: yeah we're going to talk about kind of how we can can bring the meal plan into an academic piece today some some session goals kind of what we're going to be covering here first we're going to discuss the role of a paragraph in an academic paper.

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Michael Dusek: You know I know that many of you are pretty familiar with academic writing you've done some academic writing, at least in your program but we're going to kind of talk about what the role of.

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Michael Dusek: Different parts of an essay and what those parts are meant to accomplish how they fit together, then also to to craft that that complete piece or that that complete argument.

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Michael Dusek: we're going to learn the meal plan strategy for paragraph organization and kind of look at some of the elements that go into that.

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Michael Dusek: And then i'm going to i'm going to talk about that in detail, then we're going to practice evaluating paragraphs using the meal plan we're going to take a look at some example paragraphs that have been crafted in this way and and look at maybe how some other examples can be improved.

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Michael Dusek: And lastly, as and mentioned we're going to have a workshop portion at the end of this webinar today where you're going to if you choose to.

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Michael Dusek: grab a paragraph of your own and evaluate how well, you are using some of the elements from the meal plan and maybe how these elements, could be incorporated, if you were to revise that paragraph.

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Michael Dusek: So yeah this this slide really has a basic paper organization, and this is meant to kind of show you how these elements fit together.

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Michael Dusek: As you can see it on an academic paper, it has it has a beginning a middle and it has an end right, just like most writing, but each part of an academic essay is really meant to function as as.

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Michael Dusek: As as its own Parts I have but but also contributing to this this whole this this crafting of the central argument so.

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Michael Dusek: Academic pieces often start with the introduction paragraph and in that you're going to introduce the reader to your topic.

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Michael Dusek: um explain your specific focus, maybe you're providing the reader with some background or contextual information that they're going to need to understand.

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Michael Dusek: The argument that you're that you're going to be laying out for them and then lastly you're going to be offering the reader a thesis statement.

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Michael Dusek: Which is that that central articulation of your central argument, the central argument of the piece right.

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Michael Dusek: As we're going to see throughout this session today really everything spawns off of everything is is relates directly back to that thesis statement that thesis statement is really the foundation for the entire piece.

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Michael Dusek: In the middle of the of an essay then you're going to have a number of body paragraphs and the number of paragraphs really depends on the argument that you're making right in the scope of that argument.

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Michael Dusek: On but essentially each body paragraph is going to be making a point of its own, a body paragraphs should really be focused around one central idea and.

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Michael Dusek: That central idea in some way needs to relate directly back to your thesis statement in the body paragraph is where you're going to be kind of picking apart that thesis statement.

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Michael Dusek: And elaborating on specific parts of it, so your thesis statement again at the end of your introduction is a really concise articulation of what you're going to be arguing and a piece it's then unpacked and and elaborated upon and supported in the body of your document.

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Michael Dusek: Lastly, you're going to you're going to add a conclusion or conclusion section or conclusion paragraph which really functions.

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Michael Dusek: In the same way as the introduction only backwards right so where the introduction leads the reader into the piece.

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Michael Dusek: A thesis day, excuse me a conclusion paragraph kind of leads the reader out of the peace and and leaves them with that sense of conclusion.

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Michael Dusek: i'm rather than repeating or introducing ideas you really want to remind the reader of the main points that you've already made kind of lead them briefly back through your arguments and kind of remind them where their pieces gone.

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Michael Dusek: To focus on a thesis statement, specifically, then I mean again this is, this is the main argument of your piece you're telling the reader and concise direct way.

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Michael Dusek: This is what i'm arguing you're showing that to the reader again in a concise way so you're not using a ton of language.

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Michael Dusek: there's not this isn't where you're going to be elaborating upon or offering examples that that support your point, this is really just that that central articulation of your main argument.

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Michael Dusek: Then, as you continue through a piece, as I, as I mentioned on the previous slide your paragraphs explain why your argument is true.

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Michael Dusek: or correct with examples and analysis you taking your thesis and your each body paragraph is then elaborating on one part of that thesis statement.

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Michael Dusek: In this way, you see that the body paragraphs are relating directly back to your thesis statement in academic writing.

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Michael Dusek: You know, we don't want to include anything that's that's extra or superfluous right we're really getting down to the point and.

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Michael Dusek: Supporting the argument that we're making So if you find in your writing that that a body paragraph isn't really relating to your thesis statement that's a pretty good indication that that body paragraph can can be cut from your piece that's kind of unneeded discussion.

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Michael Dusek: yeah.

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Michael Dusek: The meal plan, then, to turn to our kind of central concept for this webinar can really help you organize those body paragraphs and help you support your work in a way that's that's organized that.

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Michael Dusek: that's complete so you're you're offering example you're offering evidence and you're supporting that evidence with with analysis your own interpretation um it's.

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Michael Dusek: it's a logical way to it's a logical way to organize a paragraph so that's really what we're going to be focusing on here moving forward.

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Michael Dusek: The meal is an acronym right so uh, this is what it stands for the M stands for main idea, the main idea of the paragraph.

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Michael Dusek: Which we're going to i'm going to pick these apart individually um so yeah expect a little more discussion around this he is for evidence.

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Michael Dusek: As for for your analysis and the l here is for lead out or a concluding sentence, but each of these parts of the meal plan paragraph has a specific function.

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Michael Dusek: And we're going to look at again how these how these operate, but one thing I think is necessary to say at this point is that.

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Michael Dusek: This isn't how every meal plan paragraph should look right, you should maybe should have more than one piece of evidence in a paragraph.

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Michael Dusek: If you're including you know more evidence, you need to then include more analysis more of your own explanation your own interpretation so just because we have this kind of neat little acronym don't feel like you're being.

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Michael Dusek: don't don't feel like you have to organize a paragraph exactly like this, what I think is really useful about the meal plan is it discusses these four central elements that are necessary to include in every body paragraph.

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Michael Dusek: So if you find yourself going between evidence and analysis, a number of times in a body paragraph.

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Michael Dusek: hey that's totally fine my my meal plan paragraph is going to look a little different than your meal plan paragraph because we're different writers right we communicate in subtly different ways.

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Michael Dusek: But again, these four elements are necessary to include in a complete body paragraph for that paragraph to really be considered complete.

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Michael Dusek: All right, as promised we're gonna talk about these individually, but first the m is the main idea of the paragraph, and that is shown to the reader in a topic sentence.

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Michael Dusek: These are really, really super important to include in your writing because they focus the reader's attention on the main idea of that body paragraph as this bullet point says it establishes the focus and the topic of the paragraph.

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Michael Dusek: it's typically the first sentence or an early sentence in the paragraph, and so what.

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Michael Dusek: impact that this has on the reader, as I mentioned just a second ago is that it really focuses the reader's attention to that main idea of the paragraph you're saying hey, this is what this paragraph is going to be about.

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Michael Dusek: And then from there, you can elaborate on that point, you can add some some evidence to support that point, but by establishing that that main point right off the BAT the reader kind of.

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Michael Dusek: gets where this paragraph is going right it helps them see one you know what's happening in the paragraph and how you know the the evidence and analysis is working towards that main idea.

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Michael Dusek: But it's also easy for the reader to see, then, how that relates to a thesis statement right if you're if each body paragraph is meant to cover one central idea.

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Michael Dusek: That central idea needs to relate to your thesis statement, the topic sentence, which tells the reader that central idea should should also clearly hearken back to the thesis statement in your piece.

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Michael Dusek: Topics senses are written in scala only in your own scholarly voice so oftentimes you will not use a citation in a topic sentence um.

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Michael Dusek: yeah again I think it's important to establish the point that you're making before you go on to offer evidence to support it yeah.

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Michael Dusek: And i'll just i'll make this point again and you're going to hear me say this, a lot throughout this webinar this this these to relate directly back to your thesis this This tells the reader what part of the argument, this specific body paragraph is going to be unpacking.

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Michael Dusek: You can think of a topic sentence as a signpost you know telling the reader where the paragraph is going to go again focusing the reader's attention to that main idea of the paragraph.

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Michael Dusek: can also think of it as a promise to your reader about what the paragraph is going to cover and I think this is an important point, because.

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Michael Dusek: following through on that promise that your topic sentence makes is really what paragraph cohesion is all about that's going to make for a strong, cohesive paragraph that really stays on topic throughout.

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Michael Dusek: Right and and that's kind of how the whole meal plan paragraph.

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Michael Dusek: structure it operates right, you need to stay on topic throughout that paragraph, so if you establish a main point that you're going to be discussing in a topic sentence it's really incumbent upon you to.

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Michael Dusek: follow that that main point, all the way through that paragraph when you're ready to discuss another idea another part of your argument you can then go on to do so in another body paragraph.

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Michael Dusek: Lastly, I think this is a useful kind of metaphor, to a you can think of a topic sentence as a thesis statement for your paragraph right.

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Michael Dusek: Again this is telling the reader that central idea that that paragraph is going to be discussing one key difference here.

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Michael Dusek: The reader really expects to find your thesis statement at the end of your introduction section.

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Michael Dusek: A topic sentence should come at the beginning of your body paragraph so that's just a little bit of a different thing there.

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Michael Dusek: In terms of the location, that the reader expects to find this specific element, however, they do function really similarly there they're meant to be straightforward and tell the reader you know what what's happening here right and what's the main idea.

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Michael Dusek: When developing topics sentences there, there are a few things that you can kind of ask yourself to make sure that you're doing this effectively.

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Michael Dusek: One do I have enough to say about this topic, or is the topic sentence too narrow right so when you bring up a topic that you're going to discuss.

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Michael Dusek: yeah it should be sufficiently narrow that you're not covering a you don't need pages and pages to.

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Michael Dusek: fully cover that topic that you brought up, but you should have it should be broad enough still that it's not you know, a one or two sentence paragraph.

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Michael Dusek: Well, we have kind of a general rule here, you know, can you spend at least three sentences illustrating analyzing and explaining the main idea yeah.

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Michael Dusek: Is this effectively what i'm what i'm saying here is that you just don't want to craft the topics and that's too narrow that that you really don't have anything to say on that specific narrow idea.

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Michael Dusek: And, as I mentioned as well, you don't want to topics and has to be too broad, you can ask yourself is this too broad.

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Michael Dusek: You need a whole page is to fully develop that idea if that's the case likely that specific idea can be broken down into smaller parts and discussed in those smaller parts in multiple paragraphs.

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Michael Dusek: Okay let's turn in and talk a bit about evidence so they eat from our meal plan acronym their.

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Michael Dusek: evidence is super important in academic writing as i'm sure many of you have already you know discovered and internalized.

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Michael Dusek: Evidence drawing upon the work of others is how we support the ideas that we have and and really the strength of your evidence is going to be.

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Michael Dusek: A main driving force in the strength of your peace overall if you're offering good you know strong evidence to the reader.

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Michael Dusek: they're more apt to believe what you're saying right you're you're building your authority and your credibility as an author at that point um.

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Michael Dusek: So yeah evidence is a really important aspect to include in the body paragraph some sources of evidence, you know statistics and data and be great evidence.

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Michael Dusek: Study results, so you found a a journal article say and you're looking through that, and you can take the conclusions from that individual study and use that to support a point that you're making a great piece of evidence.

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Michael Dusek: Facts supported by research sure sure, these are all really strong forms of evidence that typically in academic writing.

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Michael Dusek: There are a couple other types of evidence that are kind of attempting to draw from but but oftentimes inappropriate for an academic one being your own personal experiences um tho those though you guys bring a wealth of experience to the table and within your field.

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Michael Dusek: Academic writing is really more about supporting your points with empirical evidence with with you know published studies that that.

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Michael Dusek: You know, have been peer reviewed and and make that that point strongly so you're only variances are something that's typically.

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Michael Dusek: Less less important or less appropriate an academic context now and Walden in your coursework and your you may encounter assignment that calls for your personal experience or your personal reflection.

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Michael Dusek: So, in those cases, obviously you're going to need to bring that in, but when we're talking about academic writing you know with the capital, a are like these really official pieces like like a.

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Michael Dusek: Final course paper like a capstone project like a proposal, you know these are really these really need to be based on on empirical evidence that has been verified and studied by scholars in the field.

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Michael Dusek: You want to avoid statements like like I believe beliefs or opinions are really less important than academic writing right you're going to be presenting an argument that's supported with with evidence, rather than expressing opinions, which are often you know personally help.

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Michael Dusek: You also want to avoid emotional please i'm your creative writing oftentimes using it kind of flowery emotional language makes for a more compelling.

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Michael Dusek: Creative piece, however, in academic writing this is something that we really want to avoid because it can bring your own bias into the situation if you're using.

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Michael Dusek: emotional language, the reader kind of sees what side of the argument that you're kind of coming down on, and that makes them a little bit less.

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Michael Dusek: apt to believe what you're saying, because the impression you're giving the reader is that you really haven't considered both sides that.

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Michael Dusek: That your mind was kind of made up and rather than coming from a place of logic you're coming from a place of emotion, so I mean explain that too much, but emotional please also something to be avoided.

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Michael Dusek: Another thing that's that's a important to mention here is that you need to use enough evidence oftentimes in an academic piece one piece of evidence isn't really enough to be convincing.

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Michael Dusek: right when you bring together multiple sources synthesize multiple sources as the the bullet point says here put them in conversation with one another you're really crafting a stronger.

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Michael Dusek: Stronger paragraph you're making a stronger point.

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Michael Dusek: You know the reader is more apt to believe what you're saying is true, and that you really understand the nuances of the idea that you're talking about when you use multiple pieces of evidence and bring them together.

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Michael Dusek: In conversation with one another, so keep that in mind as you're crafting academic body paragraphs in your academic writing.

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Michael Dusek: Excuse me it's important to us enough evidence that you're sufficiently demonstrating sufficiently supporting the point that you're making.

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Michael Dusek: And just as a quick reminder, we are writing Center people you know we can't get get through a whole webinar without doing something APA related so when.

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Michael Dusek: When you are using evidence it's important to give credit to the sources that you're drawing from right.

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Michael Dusek: citations do this for the reader they're pointing the reader directly to the source that you're trying evidence from.

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Michael Dusek: So that if they wish, they can go and make sure that you're keeping that evidence in context and that you're representing that that person's work fairly.

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Michael Dusek: This is part of academic integrity one it's part of building your authority and credibility as an author also but whenever you're drawing from an outside source, you really need to use a citation to show the reader where that that information is coming from.

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Michael Dusek: couple basic examples here, you can see if you're using a paraphrase.

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Michael Dusek: You just citation looks like this, you just have the author and the year of publication if you're quoting it looks very similar only you need to include a page or paragraph number there as well, um.

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Michael Dusek: yeah this is i'm sure this is a review for many of you, but.

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Michael Dusek: Again, when you bring evidence into your work, whether you are using the actual words of an author or you're just using their idea and putting that into your own words you again, you need to give credit to that author, for the work that they've done.

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Michael Dusek: Okay, which brings us to analysis that a in our meal plan acronym.

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Michael Dusek: there's only one slide about this, but we actually have a.

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Michael Dusek: host of other resources that discuss analysis and I think that this is a super super important part of about of a.

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Michael Dusek: Academic paragraph and something that I think students sometimes miss a little bit or kind of omit.

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Michael Dusek: I mean, this is really your chance to interpret or explain the evidence that you're using to the reader.

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Michael Dusek: Sometimes I think the temptation is to present a piece of evidence, a paraphrase say and to the reader knows how that evidence is supporting your point or how that evidence fits into the argument that you're making.

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Michael Dusek: Analysis tells the reader specifically how that source material is supporting the point that you're making there you're connecting the dots for the reader and really.

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Michael Dusek: showing them what they're meant to take from that piece of evidence and how you see that evidence as supporting your point.

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Michael Dusek: yeah make connections between your evidence and your paragraphs main idea in you're showing the reader specifically how that evidence supports the main idea of the paragraph.

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Michael Dusek: don't assume that readers that that readers know why you are using that specific evidence or what it means in relation to your thesis.

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Michael Dusek: yeah tell them why you're using that piece of evidence and what it means to your thesis put a little bit differently.

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Michael Dusek: Analysis really answers that kind of so what question for the reader if you present a piece of evidence, you know, so what what does that mean, how is that supporting your point analysis makes that connection for the reader and and really shows them.

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Michael Dusek: Why they why that piece of evidence is important to consider in the context of the of the argument that you make.

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Michael Dusek: awesome I see and through a link in the chat box that discusses analysis I know from there, there are a number of other links that you can kind of jump off to from that specific page.

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Michael Dusek: This is an important one, I might even recommend bookmarking this one, because.

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Michael Dusek: analysis is really this is your own interpretation right, this is where you're doing that intellectual work.

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Michael Dusek: And you're really demonstrating to the reader you know how this these pieces of evidence fit together, so this is a super important elements and I would recommend you guys take a look at that at that link there.

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Michael Dusek: Then the last piece of it have a meal plan paragraph is really this kind of lead out this kind of concluding.

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Michael Dusek: sentence or two and you're really kind of concluding that the central it concludes the central idea of the paragraph steps back and perhaps gives a big picture perspective.

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Michael Dusek: could remind the reader of the takeaways and connection to the thesis statement yeah so that's a great place to do that.

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Michael Dusek: And this is a an instance where you should not be using evidence when you're leading the reader out of the paragraph, so yeah this is going to be in your own voice in your own idea.

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Michael Dusek: Essentially, when I think about a lead out or concluding sentence, I really think about leaving the reader with a sense of completion right.

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Michael Dusek: In effective body paragraph in an academic essay you bring up this main idea your offer some evidence to support it, you tell the reader how the evidence is supporting it.

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Michael Dusek: And then, and then, when you leave leave out you want to give the leave the reader with the sense that this idea has been discussed fully.

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Michael Dusek: i've discussed this idea now I demonstrated why I think that's the case and how that.

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Michael Dusek: relates to my thesis statement now i'm ready to move on and discuss a new idea in a new body paragraph.

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Michael Dusek: A strong lead out sentence or a strong concluding sentence does that for a reader it gives them that sense that okay we're done discussing this idea now we're going to be moving on to to look at another.

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Michael Dusek: couple of questions that can help you is your crafting or creating lead out sentences, you know what I want my readers to understand, about the idea i've presented in this paragraph yeah that's a great way to think about how you might want to wrap that paragraph up.

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Michael Dusek: What overall summarizing idea can I present yeah, how can I sum this up when you have that summation at the end of the paragraph, it really gives the reader that sense that that hey we've discussed this enough ready to move on and talk about a different part of the argument.

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Michael Dusek: Have I offer closure or does the paragraph end abruptly yeah yeah I think that's another really important question to consider and again, this is about that that kind of feeling, you know that that this is this is closed i'm i'm ready to move on.

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Michael Dusek: here's an example of what a meal plan paragraph can look like, and this is just again a basic example.

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Michael Dusek: With one of each of the elements included here, as I mentioned it earlier, though, you know you can have a meal plan paragraph structure and include multiple pieces of evidence and multiple pieces of analysis right, so this is just meant as a kind of a basic example.

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Michael Dusek: i'm going to read this paragraph, for transcription purposes and then we're going to look at kind of how each of these sentences is functioning and how that creates a whole or complete paragraph.

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Michael Dusek: instructional scaffolding is one of the most effective strategies for increasing student understanding and learning Johnson study in the.

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Michael Dusek: In a composition class are revealed that students who whose teacher use scaffolding strategies scored an average of five percentage points higher.

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Michael Dusek: On their final essays than their peers in a lecture based classroom.

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Michael Dusek: This difference in scores suggest that scaffolding enable students, not only to understand the concept, but also to apply that concept to their own work, teachers, therefore, should not should employ scaffolding strategies to help foster independence and confidence in their students.

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Michael Dusek: yeah so you can you can see how all of these elements are kind of working together.

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Michael Dusek: First we demonstrate the main idea of this paragraph, this paragraph is going to be about how instructional scaffolding is a useful strategy for increasing student understanding and learning it's a good thing to you okay.

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Michael Dusek: Next, we have a bit of a of evidence, here in the form of a paraphrase from this Johnson 2010 article, and you can see what the citation included there it's clear to the reader where this information is coming from.

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Michael Dusek: Right, I know exactly where to look if I want to make sure that Johnson this author actually said this thing right.

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Michael Dusek: From there we see in italics and in this kind of yellowish gold is color we see.

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Michael Dusek: Analysis being included there and what analysis is doing is it's making that connection between this Johnson 2010 study and the main idea of the paragraph.

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Michael Dusek: yeah i'm going to read it again this difference in scores suggest that scaffolding enable students, not only to understand the concept, but also to apply that concept in their own work.

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Michael Dusek: So this is an interpretation of johnson's finding right you're telling the reader you know you're you're telling the reader how johnson's work.

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Michael Dusek: connects to that main idea of this body paragraph then Lastly, we see this lead out this lead out sentence right here that.

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Michael Dusek: Is kind of that summation that I was talking about previously teachers, therefore, should employ scaffolding strategies to help foster independence and confidence in their students.

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Michael Dusek: And that really gives the reader that sense that we're done discussing instructional scaffolding as an effective strategy.

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Michael Dusek: And we're ready to move on to discuss perhaps another effective strategy, depending on what the thesis statement of this particular piece would be but here's an example, paragraph that's really I think employees this meal plan structure pretty well.

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Michael Dusek: Evaluation strategies, then so when you're looking at your own work and and reflecting on evaluating your own work.

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Michael Dusek: There are a couple of techniques that can kind of you know, help you to do this and and help you to reflect on how well you're using the elements that you find it then meal plan paragraph structure.

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Michael Dusek: One of them being a reverse outline, and this can help you identify the components of a paragraph in your course paper.

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Michael Dusek: When we get to the workshop portion of this of today's webinar I would encourage you guys to do something of a reverse outline and and look at.

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Michael Dusek: Whether these elements are present in that body paragraph and what reverse outlining is is you're taking a piece that's already been been crafted it's a draft of a piece.

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Michael Dusek: And you're evaluating it to make sure that it contains the elements that are necessary here.

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Michael Dusek: So when you take a body paragraph and you reverse outlandish you're going to look and see did I include a topic sentence here, am I expressing the main idea of this paragraph right off the BAT for the reader.

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Michael Dusek: Did I include evidence that supports that main idea, you know, am I, including my own analysis to interpret and draw connections.

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Michael Dusek: Between the main idea and that evidence for the reader and, lastly, am I leading the reader out right i'm Am I am I, offering that that summation or that feeling of of completion, at the end of the paragraph.

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Michael Dusek: yeah you can review your assignment and use the meal plan to check that you are responding to each question and not repeating information is another way that you can kind of evaluate this.

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Michael Dusek: And then, lastly, from that reflection from that evaluation, you can add any missing components or reorganize to have a full meal plan paragraph.

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Michael Dusek: Paragraph that meet the assignment and support your thesis state yeah so really reverse our landing is just kind of taking a look at what you've already crafted and making sure that that you're, including the elements that are necessary there.

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Michael Dusek: Okay So here we have a practice we're going to take a look at this sample paragraph and and, as I read this as you read this to yourself, perhaps.

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Michael Dusek: I want you to consider the meal plan and what is done well in terms of meal plan focus in this paragraph and what could be done there in this paragraph, when it comes to a meal plan organization.

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Michael Dusek: Again i'm going to read this out loud for transcription purposes, but when you're ready if you feel comfortable go ahead and put a response to those questions above.

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Michael Dusek: In the chat box, you know what is this paragraph, doing well in your eyes what could be revised in this paragraph to be done better.

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Michael Dusek: Okay here's the paragraph, there are many benefits of using face to face interviews to conduct a survey.

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Michael Dusek: One benefit includes obtaining higher response rates, because the interviewer can answer participants questions and address their concerns about the survey well face to face interviews can be effective researchers should consider the drawbacks as well.

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Michael Dusek: So there's our example, paragraph if you feel comfortable in the chat box, let me know what do you think this paragraph is doing well.

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Michael Dusek: In terms of meal plan paragraph organization and what could be revised in this paragraph i'm going to go on mute here for a minute, I will say say two minutes and give you guys an opportunity to do this.

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Michael Dusek: Alright i'm seeing some awesome participation here in the chat box yeah that's great Thank you guys for, for you know driving this the sample or this practice.

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Michael Dusek: i'm got about one minute left if you feel comfortable putting a response in the chat box.

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Michael Dusek: And about a minute we're going to move on and talk through this paragraph and kind of what I see as some things that are being done well and some things that could be improved, but one minute to add your response in the chat box, if you choose.

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Michael Dusek: Okay, once again, thanks for participating For those of you who chose to you know you're really kind of driving these practices and making it.

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Michael Dusek: Really more interesting for everyone, so, so thank you that's awesome it's a bunch of really good response to some people think this needs.

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Michael Dusek: More analysis, some people think that the lead out could be stronger oh my son one person who was talking about the topic sentence and how maybe the scope of the topic sentence doesn't really fit the rest of the paragraph let's take a look at kind of what I saw here.

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Michael Dusek: And we have a sample paragraph here on the left and as someone note in the chat box, I think that this topic sentence could be better tailored to this paragraph.

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Michael Dusek: The topic sentence, as you can see, states that there are many benefits, but the paragraph only addresses one benefit.

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Michael Dusek: Right, so this is an opportunity for this author, to really tailor a topic sentence that that follows through or excuse me that that reflects the the main idea of the paragraph that that singular benefit right as we mentioned before, we were discussing topics sentences specifically.

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Michael Dusek: Your kind of this is kind of a promise that you're making to the reader you need to follow through on that promise.

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Michael Dusek: In order to have a cohesive paragraph here, so if you're going to discuss many benefits if you tell the reader you're discussing many benefits, you should you should discuss more than one benefit there right.

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Michael Dusek: This paragraph is also you know under developed, we have one piece of evidence here and a little bit of analysis.

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Michael Dusek: At the end, a little bit of an analysis lead out at the end it's kind of a little bit wishy washy what aspect what element that last sentence is really covering.

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Michael Dusek: um but as we mentioned before you know, including multiple pieces of evidence is going to be stronger having strong analysis is going to draw a stronger connection for the reader and so.

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Michael Dusek: In that way, supporting your main points in a stronger way.

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Michael Dusek: Right so yeah I would I would recommend that this author bring in more evidence here as well, and explain talk through interpret that evidence more using their own analysis.

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Michael Dusek: Lastly, you know lead out or conclusion brings up a new topic well face to face interviews can be effective researchers should consider the drawbacks as well.

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Michael Dusek: This paragraph was really about benefits right so by bringing up this this notion of drawbacks, at the end of the paragraph you're really negatively impacting the cohesion of this specific paragraph you know it's uh.

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Michael Dusek: yeah yeah you're taking you're discussing another topic, if you wanted to discuss also the drawbacks of face to face interviews.

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Michael Dusek: That could be a really useful paragraph in this context right if you're if you're discussing different interview strategies i'm kind of comparing contrasting in the essay.

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Michael Dusek: More broadly, I think a paragraph about the drawbacks of face to face interviews can absolutely have a place there, but in this topic sentence.

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Michael Dusek: We showed the reader that we're going to be only talking about the benefits of face to face interviews.

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Michael Dusek: So bring up the notion of drawbacks gets this paragraph off topic a little bit and and makes it less focused that it that it could right.

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Michael Dusek: So yeah that's kind of what I was seeing going on here in this paragraph um yeah I think a lot of you guys were, as I was kind of monitoring the chat box, when I was on mute I think you guys are On top of this, and you're seeing a lot of the same things I was so that's awesome good job.

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Michael Dusek: here's another practice again uh you know what is done well in this revised paragraph and what needs further revisions, so this is going to be an expansion of our previous paragraph a revised paragraph.

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Michael Dusek: And, and again I want you to think about what has been done well and what could be, what are the opportunities for further revision here.

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Michael Dusek: All right, i'm going to read this correctly, there are many benefits of using face to face interviews to conduct a survey.

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Michael Dusek: One benefit includes obtaining higher response rates, because the interviewers can ask can answer participants questions and address their concerns about the survey.

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Michael Dusek: Other benefits include interviewers being able to motivate clarify and probe patients participants to complete the survey.

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Michael Dusek: The weaknesses of face to face interviews include high costs the length of time associated with traveling to the participants.

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Michael Dusek: And the degree of monitoring that is required of the interviewers by the primary researchers.

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Michael Dusek: Moreover, depending on the setting that the face to face interviews occur participants privacy may be more at risk because other people that are around them, and a home for example may overhear their survey responses.

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Michael Dusek: The benefits of face to face interviews make them method and attractive choice for researchers conducting surveys.

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Michael Dusek: Okay, take a look at this on your own i'm going to go on mute for two minutes again and, and if you feel comfortable.

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Michael Dusek: In the chat box, let me know what do you think this paragraph is doing well you know this revised paragraph and what what are some possible opportunities for further revision were what could be done better here okay.

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Michael Dusek: Okay, about one more minute, if you would like to respond to these questions in the chat box feel free to do so in the next minute.

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Michael Dusek: Alright, my phone timer alarm just went off anything that.

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Michael Dusek: we've been doing this practice for a couple of minutes, so thank you guys, for you know, those of you who chose to participate and kind of drive this practice that's that's awesome I really enjoyed.

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Michael Dusek: Seeing kind of some of your analysis and your impression of what could you know what this piece was doing well and what this piece could be doing better here's some things that I think are worth talking through here.

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Michael Dusek: explanation readers will expect this paragraph to be about benefits of face to face interviews.

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Michael Dusek: But it also talks about weaknesses, making it somewhat on focus yeah, we can see here in the middle, it says the the weaknesses of face to face interviews include high costs so again we're getting a little bit off topic there.

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Michael Dusek: The paragraph is more developed there's a lot of evidence, but it's all from the same source and there's no synthesis This is something that I noticed in the chat box.

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Michael Dusek: And just get it you guys are right on top of that, you know, when I look at this as a writing instructor you know I think to myself, well, I know how groves at all feels about this topic right but.

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Michael Dusek: What other scholars agree right, it would other people who study this kind of this thing.

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Michael Dusek: This topic would they would they support what groves is St would they would they disagree, maybe with what groves the same grows at all.

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Michael Dusek: So yeah using using multiple paraphrases is a great thing, but you also want to bring in multiple perspectives and really get that synthesis put those perspectives in conversation with one another, is really what we're kind of going for here right.

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Michael Dusek: Lastly, and this is kind of obvious to me as a rating person, as well as that this paragraph really lacks analysis.

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Michael Dusek: This author is stacking paraphrases on top of each other and really assuming that the reader understands how these pieces of evidence fit together and how they support the main point of the paragraph yeah nice work ever to everyone, again I agree with and there.

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Michael Dusek: To kind of finish my thought before I move on, though, you know you really want to draw those connections.

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Michael Dusek: From the evidence that you're using to the main idea of the paragraph, this is what analysis is all about and and again don't rely on other.

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Michael Dusek: don't rely on too much evidence to be making your points for you, you really want to be, you know, making your own points using evidence, I know that that's sounds really similar but there's a kind of a subtle difference between the two.

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Michael Dusek: The point being you need to include evidence along, excuse me, you need to include analysis, along with the evidence that you're using to show the reader why this evidence is so important and what you mean for them to take from that of it.

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Michael Dusek: here's an example of revision that we could we could do you know to this paragraph that we just looked at.

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Michael Dusek: Right, and this is kind of how our verse outline works too so as i'm looking at this, you know.

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Michael Dusek: One does this paragraph, have a main idea as it expressed in a topic sentence, yes, it does, we can see that underlined in black font there.

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Michael Dusek: Does this paragraph, have evidence, yes, we can see that here, these groves at all sources that is evidence right three does this paragraph, have analysis know what does that.

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Michael Dusek: say if I was evaluating this paragraph, in my own writing this is where I would think to myself all right, I need to add some analysis to this paragraph, so that you know I can kind of draw those connections for the reader.

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Michael Dusek: Lastly, does this paragraph, have a lead out yeah sure it does right at the end there face to face interviews can be effective researchers should consider the drawbacks as well, there is, there is a lead out there.

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Michael Dusek: Does this all align right would be the next thing that you kind of want to make sure right so as you have these elements in place, this is just all working together.

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Michael Dusek: As a topic sentence only meant mentioned benefits about the paragraph discusses weakness, we see we're getting a little bit off track there.

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Michael Dusek: And I would, I would also argue that, in this lead out sentence, you know this notion of drawbacks would be a further.

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Michael Dusek: deviation from this kind of alignment of ideas here is, we can have the cohesion of the paragraph, better set right want everything in the paragraph to be focusing on this one main idea.

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Michael Dusek: And another paragraph, we can discuss drawbacks, we can discuss weaknesses that definitely could have a place in this essay, however, that place is not within this paragraph.

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Michael Dusek: One way to revise this this paragraph, for focus would be to simply mentioned weaknesses in the topic sentence.

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Michael Dusek: And this is something that you can kind of take with you in your in your toolbox of or your box of tricks, if you will.

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Michael Dusek: When you're looking at your own writing and maybe instead of crafting a whole nother paragraph about weaknesses and drawbacks.

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Michael Dusek: If you really want to keep this together and discuss weaknesses and strengths within one paragraph.

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Michael Dusek: hey sure that's totally fine just make sure that you tell the pair the reader in your topic sentence that that's what's going to be discussed here.

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Michael Dusek: Right, so one way to revise this to improve the cohesion to improve the focus of this paragraph, would be to add the notion of weaknesses to that topics and.

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Michael Dusek: Now we can see that we're going to be discussing both strengths and weaknesses, so that that bit about drawbacks and the bit about the weaknesses.

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Michael Dusek: Excuse me, is now appropriate to include.

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Michael Dusek: The other option would be to split this up split this into two paragraphs, as we see here and craft another topic sentence that discusses weaknesses specifically right.

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Michael Dusek: So really when you're looking at a paragraph that that you find gets off topic, there are, there are two ways that you can really.

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Michael Dusek: amend that or revise that to to make that focus stronger one is to change your topic sentence to include everything within the paragraph, the other is to take the ideas that are getting off topic from your topic sentence and craft a paragraph centered around those ideas right.

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Michael Dusek: And it's kind of talks through this on the on the right hand side here, if you are going to decide to split this paragraph up and craft a paragraph specifically about weaknesses.

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Michael Dusek: You know the then we're kind of starting a new a new paragraph, so we need to include all of those meal.

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Michael Dusek: meal plan elements there too right we're going to be including evidence and analysis we're going to have we're going to add a topic sentence that shows this this main idea in this case about weaknesses and we're also going to include a concluding sentence there.

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Michael Dusek: Essentially, I mean you're just kind of shuffling things around a little bit to improve your focus, but when you do that, you need to make sure that you're including.

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Michael Dusek: The meal plan elements in the paragraphs that you've now split right, because when you split up a paragraph you're going to be taking something away from that.

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Michael Dusek: You might need to add analysis or in this case add a topic sentence to the second paragraph, and a concluding sentence to the first paragraph, so that everything is kind of there, everything is present for the reader.

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Michael Dusek: And we also talked a bit about about.

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Michael Dusek: Evidence and then the fact that this paragraph, only came only presented evidence from one source, you know if you find that that's something that's happening in your in your writing.

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Michael Dusek: By all means add it add bring more sources in right and i'm just going to read this highlighted portion here.

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Michael Dusek: um we we have this this gross evidence right there and then the reader brings in a second source and kind of puts that in conversation with the groves article.

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Michael Dusek: If any problems or questions emerge The interviewer can deal with them in the moment, and this is from another source right, this is from oil 2005.

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Michael Dusek: This ability to respond immediately contributes to a higher response rate here we're seeing some analysis with this citation what that's telling the reader is that these two sources agree on that idea if they both support that notion.

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Michael Dusek: And response rate is considered a crucial variable impacting the quality of the study then again at the end of the sentence this authors returning to that Doyle source.

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Michael Dusek: yeah so you know again the whole notion of revising and reverse outlining is it brings up opportunities for revision, then you can just kind of turn your focus to addressing those and making those revision.

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Michael Dusek: If you don't have enough evidence bring more in your focuses is getting a is is being impacted negatively by multiple ideas in a paragraph yeah either change your topic sentence or split that paragraph up Those are two ways that you can adjust that.

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Michael Dusek: When looking at analysis and how analysis can be brought into this piece, you know really we're adding our own interpretation to draw connections for the reader.

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Michael Dusek: And we mentioned this in the chat box and kind of our evaluation of this paragraph that that analysis was an element that's needed here, you can see in this example where we're adding some analysis.

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Michael Dusek: Now, unlike with online survey will actually i'm not going to read that analysis out of context i'm gonna read the whole paragraph here for transcription purposes.

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Michael Dusek: There are many benefits of using face to face interviews to conduct a survey one benefit includes obtaining higher response rates, because the interviewers can answer participants questions and address their concerns about the survey.

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Michael Dusek: If any problems or questions emerge The interviewer and deal with them in the moment, unlike with an online survey.

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Michael Dusek: Disability to respond immediately contributes to a higher response rate and response rate is considered a crucial variable impacting the quality of survey data other benefits include in your books sorry about that I switch lead there.

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Michael Dusek: Other benefits include interviewers being able to motivate clarify and pro participants to complete the survey all of these actions can also help bolster the response rate.

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Michael Dusek: The benefits of face to face interviews makes make the method and attractive choice for researchers conducting surveys, especially researchers who are concerned about response rates.

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Michael Dusek: We can see here this this revision analysis has been added after the source material to again draw connections between this source material and the main idea of the paragraph.

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Michael Dusek: Alright, then one final look at this paragraph, before we move on to our kind of workshop portion here.

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Michael Dusek: As we as we evaluate this as we reverse outline this you know, is there a main idea and topic sentence yeah, we can see that there is there evidence.

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Michael Dusek: Yes, we have two pieces of evidence that we're bringing together is there analysis included yeah, we can see there where the analysis is is drawing connections between the source material and the main idea of the paragraph.

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Michael Dusek: And lastly, we do we have a lead out or concluding sentence yeah we do step two does does this.

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Michael Dusek: does everything align and connect is everything staying on topic, and we have a strong focus here yeah we only focus on benefits in this paragraph and we're really including all of the elements that we would expect to find in a meal plan body paragraph.

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Michael Dusek: And this is again illustrates the point that I was making a bit earlier than that you know you don't.

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Michael Dusek: it's not just as simple as as main idea evidence analysis laid out, these are really elements that are important to us, so when you're including multiple pieces of evidence, including multiple pieces of analysis.

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Michael Dusek: Your meal plan paragraph starts to spell the word meal in kind of a funny way right you're having extra ease and extra days in there, but you're still adhering to this this overarching organizational format.

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Michael Dusek: All right, i'll stop here for questions, and is there anything you feel we should talk through as a group, before we go into the workshop portion of the webinar today.

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Anne Shiell (she/her), Writing Center: Yes, thanks, Michael we did have some really great questions and comments regarding.

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Anne Shiell (she/her), Writing Center: I think it's particular to those students who are working on doctoral capstone documents and I stuck a link in the chat box, with a blog post that that touches on that topic a little bit, but.

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Anne Shiell (she/her), Writing Center: But it's good to note that the meal plan is really good for your.

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Anne Shiell (she/her), Writing Center: Paragraphs in your academic coursework your course papers but it doesn't always apply to every paragraph in a capstone document or the The pre proposal documents to so sometimes it can work well there, but sometimes it doesn't it really depends on.

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Anne Shiell (she/her), Writing Center: The structure that you're following and other considerations, so just note just note that.

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Anne Shiell (she/her), Writing Center: I think that we got all of the other questions so far covered, though.

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Anne Shiell (she/her), Writing Center: So i'll just note before we move on to the workshop that there's one other practice in the slides for everybody, so when we send those out by email, you can check out that third practice if you'd like, but I think that we can skip to the workshop now.

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Michael Dusek: Alright awesome.

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Michael Dusek: yeah i'm just gonna going to go on here.

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Michael Dusek: So yeah in this workshop portion really what I would like you to do is take some of the things that i've been talking about.

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Michael Dusek: You know this reverse outlining looking at the meal plan and how it is, is or maybe could be brought into your body paragraphs so.

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Michael Dusek: pull up a document or a piece that you've recently crafted this can be a draft that you haven't turned in yet this could be something that you have gotten A grade on really any piece of writing that you've that you've done lately.

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Michael Dusek: And the next slide is going to have a checklist that i'd like you to kind of use to evaluate one body paragraph within that document right so in pull up a piece select a paragraph that you're going to really be looking at and then.

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Michael Dusek: Take that paragraph add comments and color coding based on this checklist.

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Michael Dusek: And then, at the end we're going to we're going to come back as a larger group and we're going to share our experiences and hear from you guys as to what you found in reflecting on your own writing and how well you're using the meal plan paragraph format.

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Michael Dusek: So here's our checklist hmm excuse me first make sure that the paragraph has a topic sentence, and this should be the first paragraph, or excuse me, the first sentence of your body paragraph right the reader should see that right there.

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Michael Dusek: Make sure that your topic sentence is your own idea and does not include evidence or citations.

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Michael Dusek: Make sure that topic sentence sets the focus for the rest of the paragraph, so we're talking about paragraph focus paragraph cohesion here.

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Michael Dusek: Make sure that the paragraph contains evidence from a source or from multiple sources as we mentioned in the in the webinar you know multiple sources, it makes a stronger point.

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Michael Dusek: um yeah so that would be something to note, if you only have one source, make sure that your paragraph contains analysis of the evidence so it's not enough just to use evidence and assume that the reader sees how that fits make sure that you're telling the reader how that fits right.

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Michael Dusek: check to see if there's a lead out sentence that wraps up the main idea of the paragraph.

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Michael Dusek: look also at transitions and make sure that they are helping to connect ideas within the paragraph, some of those linguistic cues putting ideas together.

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Michael Dusek: You can make sure that all the information the paragraph is related or relates, the evidence and analysis helps support the main topic so everything's kind of fitting together as we practice with our previous practices.

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Michael Dusek: and make sure that the paragraph is developed it's long enough to warrant a whole paragraph right you're you're fully discussing the topic that you bring up.

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Michael Dusek: and make sure that last of the paragraph doesn't cover too much or need to be split up another way of saying that would be you know, is this paragraph, getting off topic are there are multiple ideas that are being covered in this one body paragraph.

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Michael Dusek: So.

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Michael Dusek: yeah i'm going to give you guys about 10 minutes to do this boat will say about yeah about 10 minutes so i'm going to set the timer here and i'm going to go on mute.

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Michael Dusek: Go ahead and try this out with your own with your own writing and take that critical eye to your own writing and see how well you're doing this, and maybe some opportunities that you encounter to to revise it to bring these elements.

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Michael Dusek: into your writing more strongly okay i'll talk to you guys in about 10.

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Michael Dusek: Okay we're about halfway through this workshop portion again we're taking a look at our own writing and and bring that critical eye to it to make sure that that the meal plan of a paragraph organizational elements are present there you know, I think.

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Michael Dusek: Especially when I would work with undergrad students.

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Michael Dusek: yeah I think that the tendency is to really be.

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Michael Dusek: Good at analyzing the work of others right and offering feedback for your colleagues, but really you know it's really, really important that you're.

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Michael Dusek: able to kind of identify some opportunities for revision within your own writing this is really.

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Michael Dusek: important aspect of becoming a stronger writer so in the next four minutes or so really use this checklist and.

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Michael Dusek: and give an honest reflection about the paragraph that you're that you're taking a look at within your own writing and then we'll come back and talk about some of the things that you were noticing.

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Michael Dusek: Thanks for participating everyone, I really appreciate it, I look forward to hearing kind of what you're what you're learning.

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Michael Dusek: Okay, it is been 10 minutes um.

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Michael Dusek: What did you guys find what did you find, as you were looking at your at your own work um.

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Michael Dusek: Go ahead and feel free to to share in the in the chat box and let me know some of the.

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Michael Dusek: Reflection what came of your reflection, what did you notice about your own writing and how you were using the meal plan or maybe what opportunities you encountered to bring the meal plan into your writing in a more strict in a stronger way.

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Michael Dusek: yeah using citations and opening as a kind of an opening sentence that can that can be kind of attempting choice right because oftentimes in a conclusion you start maybe with an illustrative quote.

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Michael Dusek: And then work to the main point, but in a body paragraph it's really more effective, to start with that strong topic sentence right it tells the reader that main idea focuses the reader's attention.

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Michael Dusek: think it really helps the reader see how you're supporting that point and how you're then elaborating on it great reflection.

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Michael Dusek: I saw some discussion about including analysis in your writing and being sure that that element is brought in in a strong way that's awesome awesome reflection there too.

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Michael Dusek: Okay, that in the the sake of time we only have about a minute left in the in the webinar for today um you know, I just want to thank you guys for for joining us.

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Michael Dusek: Here, I hope that you learned about kind of bringing these organizational elements to your body paragraphs and.

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Michael Dusek: And what that can give you and how these elements fit together to craft a cohesive body paragraph and then contributing to a cohesive essay that really supports one central argument.

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Michael Dusek: So, for those of you chose to participate, thanks to time i'm.

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Michael Dusek: Think i'm going to wrap us up here and and kind of let you guys go about your day but, again, thanks for joining me and thanks for joining us, we have a feedback survey that and just put in the chat box there, and with that we're going to end the session have a good rest of your day.

 

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