Answered By: Paul Lai
Last Updated: Jun 04, 2021     Views: 130





>> ANNE: Hello everyone welcome if you have just joined us have just post the slides for the webinar the chat box if you'd like to use this on your own or later on will get started in about two minutes and we have a check going if you would like to introduce yourself there so check out what everyone is looking forward to today. Thanks for joining us.


Welcome to paraphrasing primer, how to paraphrase sources successfully, I am Anne Shiell from the Writing Center and we are so glad to have you with us today. On your screen you will see an informal poll that we longed to hear about everybody's looking forward to today. A lot of folks are looking forward to learning more about paraphrasing which is excellent, since that is the focus of our webinar today. We also have a number of you looking forward to practices we will be doing and also several students looking forward to connecting other Walden students and looking for some motivation. That is great and thank you to everybody who participated in the poll. If you haven't had a chance yet you can feel free to introduce yourself in the chat box.


I will share my video here briefly with everybody, you all have the ability as well although don't feel like you have to do so. This is our paraphrasing primer webinar, and we have a recording, we are recording our webinar recording will be available in our webinar archive probably by next week at the latest. We have slides available the chat box for you to download which I will share again in a moment if you didn't have a chance to grab those. The slides will also be available the webinar archive letter on. In the slides are lots of hyperlinks that are active, you will see those on the street today but in Zoom you aren't able to click them and access them in the webinar like you can in Adobe connect if you are familiar with our webinars on that platform. Although slides are active for you, the links are active in that slide deck.

We have closed captioning available today, you will need to turn that on by clicking the closed captioning and live transcript button in your resume toolbar, and we have a chat box is a mentioned you can use the chat box throughout the webinar if you have questions or comments and if you have any technical trouble today, one tip is to use Google Chrome for your browser if you're able and there's also great support for any troubleshooting? Need to do. Zoom also has reactions feature which you are welcome to use if you want to give feedback.

There is remote his and feedback to speed up our slowdown at all and we will be keeping an eye those as well.

Claire is our presenter today, Claire Helakoski writing instructor in our Writing Center, and she has put together this new webinar for you which we are excited to present, we have some paraphrasing webinars we have done in the past this webinar we will also give a really good overview of paraphrasing, what it is, how to do it successfully, tips, also a bit of a deeper dive then we have done before. We are really excited today.

Michael Dusek writing instructor in the Writing Center is here with me to call facilitate and answer questions in the chat box. And I will turn it over to Claire Helakoski


>> Thanks and. Hi everyone as Anne said I'm Claire Helakoski and we are going to talk about paraphrasing.

In today's session we will define paraphrasing and its importance, or the difference between quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing, identify strategies for paraphrasing, and apply strategies in paraphrasing practice, we will get to practice some paraphrases together which I think really helps, it helps me I am an interactive learner.

We have a lot to get through today and I will try to get through it all as fast as I can while still answering all your questions and digging into the material.

Paraphrasing. What it is and why it matters, I said paraphrasing a bunch of times, it is the title of the webinar, but the actual definition of paraphrasing is: Paraphrasing presents a key point of an author's ideas in a new way. A paraphrase uses your own words and sentence structure. That's the key piece there. We will talk about that and other examples. Paraphrasing is important because it gives you a deeper understanding of the source and topic, and it shows your cortical thinking incredible engagement with the text and reading you're doing.

While I was giving the definition you may have been wondering what's the difference between a paraphrase and a summarizing source of information? A paraphrase uses your own words and sentence structure, usually shorter than the original source material. A paraphrase is focused is usually the summary of one paragraph or even more in a source, a paraphrase is used in a specific context to further a point or provide evidence for point. A paraphrase is cited. Example of a paraphrase might be, Sylvia argued that the practice of been writing is unhealthy and in the long run ineffective. Here I am paraphrasing and that I am really distilling down Sylvia's main point, I am putting it in my own words and sentence structure, I am being short concise to the point this would be surrounded by


That is relevant to the topic.

In a summary you still use your own words and sentence structure but it will be shorter than the original but it's a broad overview of the source. You are just dealing with that one source so you may not be citing what is frequently because of APA rule, so in this example Sylvia examined, excuses writers give themselves regarding their writing practices, by breaking down his excuses Silvey endeavored to provide writers with new perspectives about the writing process and academic writing in general.

This is more a summary of what Sylvia did really specifically. We have several different sentences here talking about Sylvia's source, this is really a summary for someone, we are providing a full summary of the source, somebody may be trying to read it, maybe an annotated bibliography, you won't do summaries very often or as a paragraph is how we typically employ evidence in academic writing. You can do a good direct rotation but usually paraphrase and APA recommends paraphrasing as often as you can.

A paraphrase is much shorter and concise and is used for that purpose, that specific context and we will have examples of what paraphrases look like in context and with some practices as we go along.

As I mentioned paraphrasing is just one way of using evidence another way is a quotation. A quotation difference from a paraphrase in that it is the exact same wording in the exact same order as the original source. You usually only quote a couple of lines because you don't want to take over your whole paper with giant quotations. A quotation is cited. Just like a paraphrase quotation you need quotation marks around the exact phrasing, and you need the author, year, and a page or paragraph number two provide the reader with the exact spot where they can fight that exact wording in the original source.

Whereas a paragraph you have your own words and sentence structure, what it is shorter than the original, or as a quotation is word for word exactly what was in the original a paraphrase can be much shorter. It is narrower, and focused, since you don't have to include every word from the original source, and you will cite it with the author and the year. You don't need to put a page or paragraph number four a paraphrase.

While quotations can be useful, we want to paraphrase as often as possible because APA recommends that because it demonstrates that critical thinking and engagement and lets you be a lot shorter and more concise, and integrate into your paragraph more easily. Have to do a lot of extra work to integrate a quotation and make it flow and connect.

How do I paraphrase? Let's talk about paraphrasing strategies practice. Read. Read the passage until you understand its meaning, this means you are probably not going to be able to scale it, I love skimming, I skim stuff all the time but if you're looking to paragraph this information you will need to dig in and read it in a more calm setting where you fully take in all the information and make sure it makes sense to you because if you're trying to paraphrase something you will have a hard time.

Think about your purpose. What will you do with this piece of evidence? What is the connection to your thesis statement can mark that's important that context, you are not as reading and summarizing your thinking about why am I using this, how does it connect to my greater purpose or thesis? You want to look away -- look away from the passage, close the tab, close the book, look away from it, and imagine explaining what that means but that main point means to a classmate or coworker and write at a giving the source hidden. That will help ensure you aren't accidentally copying phrasing from the original source. You do want to go back and check and add a citation, you want to double check your wedding against the original source and make sure you didn't accidentally copy some of the language word for word. It happens. It happens to all this. That's why you go back and double check. And add that citation.

I talked about the strategies and I will talk more and we will do some practices too.

Here's a paraphrasing example. Is a quotation, the direct from the source information?

The results revealed that student's interaction and academic emotions directly related to learning persistence. Specifically, enjoyment anxiety and boredom at significantly meeting moderating effect on the relationship between student's interaction and learning persistence

That's the original source said that's what I read, and I am working on a paper where my thesis is, students experience with their online courses directly impact persistence. You can see how it is related, I am talking about the student experience online and the sources talking about the student experience online so you can see that connection. I will want to think about what I am paraphrasing, think about my thesis and think about how this helps further the point I'm making.

Here's an example of what I might want to really focus in on as I paraphrase. Here's bolded text specifically enjoyment anxiety and boredom significant mediating and moderating effects on the relationship between student's interaction and learning persistence.

The bold text is specifically supporting my thesis which is that students experience impact persistence. The experience you have affects how persistent you are in an online course. That's what you are saying here.

That's what I will focus in on as they were, paraphrase. And then I might come up with this paraphrase:

Aspects of student experience in the classroom impacted persistence.

I am specifically talking about the findings you will head which were that aspects of experience did impact persistence. I am pulling it down and making that clear here in my own paraphrase. It is shorter than the original you can see I have not directly copied the exact language and war order, that said, I will need to use words like experience and persistence, those aren't really words I can necessarily replace, and that is okay. There are certain terms and words you are not going to be able to replace, but I didn't say, enjoyment anxiety and boredom impacted persistence. Because that would be exactly from the source and I paraphrase those aspects.

Here are some examples of ineffective paraphrasing. Paraphrasing his hard. I want to acknowledge, it is difficult, it is challenging, and that's why you're here at this webinar today.

Here's some examples of ineffective paraphrasing, and I will go through how to revise them to be stronger. Use an example of original text,

Preformed binge writers usually don't know how to manage their writing time. Because they used to be driven by deadlines and guilt, they like experience in setting goals, managing several writing projects at once, and sticking to their schedule.

Writers have reformed often are unsure of how to use schedule time to write.

This is really not a great job of using my own words and sentence structure, this is not really much of a change -- manage their time, Hughes scheduled time to write. Again, not the most effective rephrasing I think, it's a good first draft, but it could use a little bit of work.

Here's another ineffective paraphrase. Converted spree authors commonly question how to organize their inscription moments.

This sounds like somebody used a thesaurus to rewrite every word of the original sentence, reformed binge writers converted spree authors, and I see this kind of thing often these days, and I think it is a lack of confidence in paraphrasing which I totally understand, but a thesaurus is not going to solve the problem for you. It just makes these weird sentences that don't quite make sense or make your reader go, what did I just read? Instead, you want to make sure that you are understanding the text yourself and can try to rephrase it on your own, without looking at the original.

This is a case where they were looking so closely at the original that they came up with this kind of an odd sentence with a bunch of replacing words that are still in the same word order.

A stronger paraphrase would be

A writer used to spending a short amount of times to produce all the writing often struggle when they first tried to follow a structured writing schedule.

Here we are talking about a writing schedule and structure, talking about, defining been dreading instead of using the term been writing which is totally fine as well. A writer used to spending short about of time to produce all the writing, and we are conducting that main focus and conclusion that Sylvia has in the section. They are basically saying, it's really hard for people used to been driving to stick to a schedule because they are used to doing a different way. It's a little bit longer than the other two examples, but that's not really important, nobody is comparing it to the original to make sure it is as short as a can possibly be you want to focus on being concise in a way that presents information clearly to your reader.

In this example you can see how we have our own written sentence structure, still getting at the main idea and we have not used a thesaurus type deal to just replace certain words.

Here is another example of paraphrasing and if this is how we might draft a paraphrase as we work on it.

Many writers fear receiving negative feedback getting rejected or being wrong, the classic theory of achievement motivation proposed to motives that affect performance: A need to achieve success and a need to avoid few failures. Situational factors can amplify these motives and writing journal articles seem to evoke the writers need to avoid failure. Many writers particularly new to the world of academic writing, ruminate about rejection. They worry about what the editor was say the imagine a reviewer scowling while reading manuscript, they dread the rejection letter in their inbox.

That is a big idea, and we have how we might paraphrase this. First draft, academic writers often feel a need to avoid failure. We actually have that, that phrasing in the original, so that the first draft, we look back at it and we see, I chose need to avoid failure, the exact same phrasing as the source, and so I can put that in quotation marks in my revision 1, that's an okay paraphrase, but it's not such a wording choice that needs to be quoted, I could probably say it on my own in a better way. And so, my revision whites look;

Academic writers often allow their insecurities to inhibit their publishing opportunities

Specifically, what I avoiding failure here, I am saying why this is happening a bit more clearly. I am still summing up the main point and take away that I want from this big chunk of text, what I am doing so in a way that doesn't need a quotation mark because I'm not using the exact words in the same order, and it is totally fine if draft of your paraphrase and up with some of those phrases but it's a good opportunity to work on your paraphrasing skills by revising them in a different way.

I want to talk about misrepresentation. This is something I see in paraphrasing as well, not only do you want to make sure you are freezing it in a new way, and being clear for your reader, you also want to make sure you're conveying what the source actually says, and I'm sure all of you can relate to this, some of you have probably read those online articles that have hyperlinks and you click on one and you have no idea what that source had to do with what the author actually said or was talking about.

That's what you want to avoid. We strive to be much better than those types of articles in being clear about where our research came from and what it involves, so here's an example of misrepresentation and I will tell you how to avoid that.

If learning materials are simple, students could be bored. In addition, students enjoyment positively protected learning persistence. On the contrary, anxiety and boredom negatively predicted Teutons learning persistence.

Here is a misrepresentation, student anxiety creates lack of learning persistence. This is a misrepresentation because anxiety was a predictor, the language used, that on purpose, anxiety was a particular not necessarily a cause of lack of persistence. It didn't say anxiety causes lack of persistence, theta said it was a particular. Students were anxious, they were less likely to be persistent, which is quite the same thing, or choices important.

Is another one.

Sample materials are the main cause of student boredom. Here we are over exaggerating what they found, the source says boredom could be and it doesn't attribute complicity as a cause, let alone the main cause, it just says if the materials simple students might be bored. Which is pretty hypothetical, so we definitely wouldn't want to say it is the main cause of student boredom, that applies you did this really aggressive study that found the top five causes of student boredom and simple materials were the main one. That is not the case here.

Here's some revised examples.

For that first one, instead of student anxiety creates lack of learning persistence, we might write, students' anxieties are connected to learning persistence.

That shows a correlation rather than causation.

Example 2, simple materials are the main cause of student boredom, we might rephrase, while there are many potential causes for student boredom, simple learning materials are a potential factor for educators to consider.

Here we are just saying, Yu agrees with me that boredom and civil materials are something that we need to think about.

Those examples demonstrate how you can focus on what the source is actually saying, and it can be really hard because you are using it for a specific purpose in your work, and it is why you have to go back and double check your paraphrase not only doesn't steal the language, but doesn't take away the meaning or shift the meaning from the original source.

Here's another type of misrepresentation that I see pretty often, there is a little, it's the same source, an example of this presentation of the source maybe I will make sure student and trauma classes to increase persistence then you have a citation. As a reader I am wondering what are you paraphrasing? Did Yu write about your classroom? How is this paraphrasing and where the citation is, the application is Yu wrote about this particular writer's desire to make sure their classes increase persistence.

A revision would be something like

Since student in enjoyment increases persistence, that's the evidence we're taking out. I will ensure student in drama classes. It's fine to use paraphrase in and why-sentence, especially for those papers we will talk about what you want to do in your practice or classroom, it's just you have to make it clear what you are going to do and what the source actually said.

Here's another example this study will salmon have boredom and anxiety impact student learning. Here I am confused as a reader because I am wondering what they mean by the study do they mean the Yu study, because the study already happened, study student is writing about, probably isn't the same study that already occurred. It creates confusion and you can clear. Similar to the study, this study will examine you can show the relationship and you can use a narrative citation to cleared up or just change the placement in the sentence and make sure it is always clear where your source material ends and where your own purpose begins.

Avoid misrepresenting a source, first ensure you fully understand the original source before paraphrasing. Make sure it is clear what the source said versus how you will use the information. Be aware of your citation placement and what it implies the original source said. And always compare your paraphrase with the original. If you compare with the original that helps prevent a lot of this, I know it's an extra step and we are all so busy, I know that Walden students are the hardest working people I have ever met, and I know it is hard to ask you to do this extra step but it is really important and it will establish you as a more credible scholarly writer.

Let's pause a minute for questions.


>> This is Michael, I haven't seen a ton of questions in the chat box so I think you're good to continue on


>>Claire: keep questions coming if you have them, Michael and Anne are standing by.

Now we are at our paraphrasing practice, I am excited because we have a lot of time to work on it so I have several different practices here for you, I want you to read each passage, write a para phrase you might use, and notepad, and if you want to copy and paste it in the chat box and I will pull a few of them and talk through them as well. This is a great practice for everybody.

Here's our paraphrasing practice number one. I will go ahead and read the source here and there is a reminder of the paraphrasing process at the top and I will give everybody sometime to write as well.

Stressful life events can cause insomnia too but if people become overly fixated on their inability to sleep it leads to hours in bed trying to force sleep to come, which in turn causes anxiety and arousal. Over time this pattern can become ingrained so that insomnia persists long after the original stressor is passed. If you can't sleep, relocate to another room to do something relaxing like reading until you feel sleepy.

Read this passage. Think about one idea that interests you, look away. Write Euronext nation as you would to a friend and check your paraphrase and paste in the chat box. I will give everybody three minutes to work on that, at least three minutes. And I will keep an eye on the chat box and I will pull relevant examples and we will talk through them together as well.

I will go on mute while you do that.


I have added some examples and will be pasting them in the chat box we will talk through each one.

I am to post an example to discuss the chat box and it will retreat as well.

Example 1, one of the ones y'all sent in: anxiety and stress are related to insomnia reducing the level of an anxiety is the key to good sleep.

That starts out well we are talking about the relationship between anxiety and stress in insomnia which is deftly something Mosko talked about, and very clear paraphrase, so great job there.

I would say reducing the level of anxiety being the key to good sleep is maybe leaning toward misinterpretation, because Mosko doesn't specifically say that reducing anxiety will make sleep better, they are actually talking about how even knowing anxiety is gone you might still have trouble sleeping so especially that first part anxiety and stress, they are related so great job.

Here's another one. Example number two

Instead of forcing yourself to sleep because we're summing up the ideas there and their advice on what to do and relocating and reading might help you sleep better so you are not saying it definitely will help you sleep better which is not what Mosko said either and that's a great example and I appreciate everyone sharing so much as well.

I want to keep this moving because we have a couple more examples, but this is really great and we will do another example and they also want to acknowledge that it is really hard to paraphrase something just out of the blue so I appreciate you doing this with me. Normally you would be paraphrasing information that is about a topic you have researched and have a thesis or engaged an idea about already.  Just doing it out of nowhere is uniquely difficult.

Here's a possible paraphrase, insomnia can become like a habit that stays with people over time particular if a person continually fails to fall sleep immediately.

Let's move on to the next example.

Here's another one and will do it just like we did this first one.

Read the passage until you understand it and choose an idea, look away


>> “As the life span of information and knowledge is getting shorter, 

educators are placing increasing emphasis on the value of lifelong learning. 

The advent of information technology has enabled us to learn a variety of topics 

that meet our needs anytime and anywhere via online. 

That is, online teaching and learning tends to be more efficient 

given that the time and space limitations are relatively minimal 

compared to the traditional setting” 

 I am gathering -- I'm gathering couple examples and we will talk about them just a second.

I am seeing some great ones and coming by so fast I can't possibly pull them all because you guys are amazing. I will talk about this one.

The flexibility of remote learning tends to increase opportunities for lifelong learning.

I thought that was a really effective paraphrase. It really distilled the important ideas here which is that online learning is flexible, and that online learning is connected to lifelong learning. That really did a great job of distilling the important information and takeaways for the reader here, and uses some of the terminology from the source, remote learning, lifelong learning, that's something you have to do, but the rest of it is totally their own sentence structure and approach. So that is great.

And I will talk about example to.

Online learning online teaching and learning are more effective as they help manage lots of time

It's a bit of a misrepresentation I worry, because it doesn't actually talk about loss of time it talks more about the constraints of time and space and being in a physical space -- I see the relationship, but I'm not sure it is the most effective paraphrase I think it is misrepresenting the source a little bit and we would want to understand more what they are saying about the limitations in the original source, and there might be more beyond this piece that I pulled.

I will do one more for this one. Example number three.

With the decrease of lifespan knowledge and information, online learning is the best effective way for individuals to learn.

That one is a misrepresentation, because it doesn't say it is the best way to learn, we want to avoid generalizations like that, in APA style in general, this is the best way, the only way, is not something the science tends to say because we could be wrong. Someone could come out and prove how wrong we are. Instead focusing on what this specifically does say about how online learning is effective and what is effective about it, and I think would be a really great revision.

Here is an example paraphrase,

One vantage of online education over traditional face-to-face education is that it is often more efficient weekly since it is not limited by location or geography.

I took a different tactic then you, in my paraphrase, I talked about online education, flexibility lack of constraint with time and place.

That is just part of the source and as you can see there are so many ways to paraphrase a single source is why paraphrasing is supported because it shows your critical engagement with the text and the people out will further your specific document you are working on.

Here's practice three, and I think we have time to do it so I'm excited, for this one I have two different pieces, either faculty can improve student learning by clear communication or faculty for online courses can encourage student learning in a number of ways. Those are slightly different so think about which one you want to work with and then write a paraphrase tell me which thesis you're supporting your paraphrase, so right either thesis a or thesis B.

I will read this

“For faculty developing courses with an online at-distance component, 

awareness that adults may value options, variety, and self-directedness in their learning opportunities 

I see people talking about with thesis they will use and attract but also do the paraphrase so what is your paraphrase for the source information?


Some of you got it you are doing so great. I am going to read an example thesis; bidirectional communication will facilitate adult learning in the virtual classroom. I'm not totally sure what bidirectional communication is, and I would I think it is to a communication, rephrase, I would ask for more rephrase there, that's a nice paraphrase because it distills the information and focuses on adult learning and that is what the focus of the study was, those adult learners, how they are learning, and that thesis A is specifically focused on communication, we want to talk about communication in our paraphrase so we are connected directly with our thesis. The other one talk about the different approaches discussed in this paragraph a lot of you are doing in your examples.

I have a couple quick examples here, which I will share, for thesis A, one component that facilitates clear communication's regular communication as compared to intermittent or sporadic communication from faculty.

That's something that was talked about in the study students like regular check in the faculty.

For thesis B paraphrase might be, Ausburn found that differentiation is important component not only for traditional classes but also online courses.

We can see how, depending on your thesis, the information you pull out of a source is going to be different and the information you pull out informs how you are connecting it to your thesis, how you are paraphrasing and how you bring it to your finish.

We have lots of practice just now, you can view them in the slides which I will post at the end. I want to have a few minutes for questions.


>> The whole group could benefit from these questions, the first question, source usage and how often can you do that? The question could be, how many times can you use an author's original words in your writing?


>> Original words, there is not a limit per APA, they don't say you can't use an author 17 times in your writing, or something like that but when you talk about being an effective writer, you don't want your work to just be full of somebody else's thoughts and ideas, even if you are paraphrasing which as you have seen requires your own personal engagement with the text, it is still someone else's thoughts and ideas, so you don't want to create a situation where the reader is, why don't I just read this source? Because you are using it so much. Instead, you want to have that balance, and that something we talk about a lot in our paragraphing webinar which is my favorite of our webinars. I love that webinar. The paragraphing structure you really want to think about having your own words and points and ideas and everything will paragraph, and how much you use a signal source I think really depends on the assignment I have seen assignments where you are supposed to just use two sources, and in earlier coursework, whereas if you're writing a 20-page piece, you probably want more than one source. And not rely on one source to heavily.



>> That makes a lot of sense, think about using sources efficiently, and offering room for your own discussion too? The other question, about page numbers, when citing. When paraphrasing, when you use a page number in a citation?


>> Per APA you do not have to use a page number ever when paraphrasing. Because you are using your own words and sentence structure. That said, it is not incorrect to include a page or paragraph number if you think it would be particular helpful to directing your reader, if they are looking at the original source. It is not wrong, but you don't have to do it, and as busy as we all are, I would say, if I didn't have to worry about it I probably wouldn't.



>> Five can add one more point to that, everybody here we are talking specifically about the page number and not about the citation. Citations are not the focus of the webinar today, but you always have to cite when you paraphrase. I did see a lot of paraphrases come into our practices with citations, but also a lot without citations, so every time you paraphrase you do have to include a citation.


>> Thank you for that clarification Anne. You always need the author and publication, it is the page or paragraph that is sometimes, always the author and publication.



>> We have time for one more? There was another question about using video sources, do you have any tips for paraphrasing content that you might be pulling from a video?


>> Interesting. I don't think I have ever paraphrased the video in a paper, so that's fun.

I think the same thing applies, if you need to look at what they have said you might try to pull the transcript, transcripts are available for most videos these days to look at what they actually said. Citing that gets tricky, and I am not going to get into nuances, because honestly, I would have to look up again it's a nuanced rule about citing videos. Citing specific text from videos. However, paraphrasing works the same way. You hear someone say something in a video, you distill that information into your own words sentence structure, you add a citation, and then, you can paraphrase a video, you can paraphrase any kind of source.



>> Thanks a lot. I think we are good on the questions.


>> Thanks so much. I think we turn it over to Anne at this point --


>> Thank you so much everybody, the couple quick things before we end, I see some of the questions coming in that we will not be able to get to and there was so much good chatting that we might have missed some too so I apologize if you did. Follow up with us by email at if you have questions that didn't get answered or that come up later and we will perhaps try to answer a few of those in a follow-up, email I sent to you.

I know some of you on mobile devices Can't access the slides and am sorry for that, I will send out the slides and emails well. I am also posting a link in the chat box, that didn't quite work, you'll have to copy and paste that into your browser, I will send it by email to sell but we would love your feedback through that survey link on this webinar especially because as I mentioned at the beginning it is a new webinar for us, we are also new to Zoom and would love to hear what you think about our webinars in Zoom so thanks in advance for taking a couple minutes for the survey.

If you want to stay up to date on our webinars you can email us and the ask to put on your newsletter if you didn't sign up for that when you registered and you can also keep an eye on her webinar calendar on the Writing Center website, I will also like to that in my email or my we have to adhere, but again thank you so much everybody for joining us and practicing with us today to Claire and Michael and we hope to see you at our next webinar!

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