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Last Updated: Jun 28, 2023     Views: 820




Visual: The webinar begins with a title slide:  


APA Reference List Workshop, Part 2: Top Errors in Individual Entries and How to Fix Them  

Walden University Writing Center 
April 15, 2021 

PowerPoint title slide in the large central panel. A captioning pod, Q&A pod, and files pod are stacked on the right side. 

The slide says “Housekeeping” and the following:  

  • Recording 

  • Will be available online a day or two from now. 

  • Interact 

  • Polls, files, and links are interactive.  

  • Q&A 

  • Help  

  • Choose “Help” in the upper right hand corner of the webinar room. 

Audio: Anne: Hello everyone and welcome.  This is Anne from the Writing Center. Our APA Reference Lists Part Two webinar will begin in just a few minutes here. There is a chat box underneath the slides where you can introduce yourself if you like. Actually if you would do me a favor if anybody had trouble getting into the room today could you let me know in the chat box or in that Q&A pod just to get a pulse on how connect is working today. I heard a couple students were having some trouble. I hope that wasn't the case for you. We also have an opening poll here on the sides about what you are looking forward to in the webinar and again we will begin in just a few minutes.  

Hello everyone, and welcome to today's work webinar APA Reference List Workshop Part Two: Top Errors in Individual Entries and How to Fix Them. I am Anne Shiell from the Writing Center, and I'm here with Michael and Kacy from the Writing Center today. We are so glad you are able to join us. If you were not able to join part one, don't worry, this is the companion of ours and it stands alone and you won't be left out if you didn't have a chance to watch that first part. We will link to that in the presentation too and you can go back and check that as well.  

Visual: The slide changes to:  


APA Reference List Workshop, Part 2: Top Errors in Individual Entries  
and How to Fix Them 

A recording will be available in our webinar archive 

Closed captioning is available via the Captioning link in the Links box 

Download slides from “Files” pod (or email us if you’re on a mobile device) 

Download Certificate of Attendance from Files pod 

Technical trouble? 

  • Review the technical suggestions in the links pod 

  • Select “Help” or the “i” icon in the right corner of the webinar room 

  • Use the Q&A pod 

Polls, files, chat box, and links are interactive 

Audio: A few housekeeping things we are recording this webinar and recording will be available in our webinar archive and will go out email later this week.  

There is closed captioning available in the closed captioning link in the links box. That will take you out to a new browser video where you could follow along if you like.  

You can download the slides from the files pod or if you are on a mobile device we will be happy to send those by email. And files downloadable slides and the slides on the screen should all be interactive meaning you can click those links that are within the slides to get to further information and resources.   

In the files pod there is also a certificate of attendance you can download if you like.  

If you have any technical trouble today, there are technical suggestions linked from the links pod you can also select the help button or the eye icon in the top corner of the webinar room and that will take you to Adobe's support. That is the best place to go for helpful. You can also use the -- Kacy and I will be behind the scenes and answering those questions for you.  

I mentioned the links also the poll in the chat box are interactive today.   

Visual: The slide changes to: Presenters and Facilitators 


Presenter: Michael Dusek 

Writing Instructor 

Walden University Writing Center 

Facilitator: Kacy Walz 

Writing Instructor 

Walden University Writing Center 


Facilitator: Anne Shiell 

Resource Manager of Student and Faculty Webinars 

Walden University Writing Center 

Pronouns: She, her, hers 


Audio: Our presenter today is Michael Dusek, and we have Kacy today as a second facilitator as well.  Both Michael and Kacy are writing instructors in our writing center.  Hopefully you had a chance to work with both of them in our paper view service.  If not, I definitely encourage you to check that out for really excellent one on one feedback from either Michael or Kacy. With that, I will turn things over to Michael.   

Audio: Michael:  All right.  Thanks for joining us, everyone.  Thanks to Anne for that sterling introduction, and I thank you too, Kacy Walz, supporting students that way. One more thing I do also want to thank Max Philbrook representing part one of the series.  And, again, as Anne mentioned this is going to be companion webinar to the first one. If you didn't to understand this particular webinar. As Max mentioned in the previous part one, this is really more of a technical webinar that is concerned with "where the period goes," to use Max's language there.  


Visual: The slide changes to: Chat 


What types of reference entries do you find most challenging to create?  

Audio: Welcome. Let's start with the chat. If you feel comfortable, go ahead and put your response in the chat box here. The question is: What types of reference entries do you find most challenging to create?  As you are looking at the sources you are using in the paper, what particular sources do you find difficult to create record entries for. I will give you guys a couple minutes to put your answers in the chat box and then we will get into the material, the contents of the webinar.   

[students type in chat box]  


Okay. I am seeing some people kind of recalling that books have been a difficult reference entry for you. Some people PDFs are something that you need to use a little practice on, websites I think is a common one, and I think Kacy and Anne echo on that. That websites are not really comfortable -- newspaper entries, blogs. Sure.  We'll give you one more minute. If you want to participate in this opening chat, go ahead and throw that response in the chat box.  


[students type in chat box]  


I am seeing a wide variety of responses here. That makes sense to me because there are really a wide variety of sources that you could be using in your academic writing, and they all have kind of different nuances in terms of the format and requirements they are.  That makes sense that there would be varied response. Government documents and legal materials I just seen come in the chat box. That's another when I think is pretty common. We see students asking about that quite a lot. I'm going to move on thank you for participating in this opening chat and thinking about what you might find to be a little bit more difficult in terms of creating reference entries.  



Visual: The slide changes to: Session Overview 


• Discuss the purpose of a reference list in APA Style 

• Identify common errors in APA Style reference entries 

• Workshop a reference list 

• Suggested materials: A reference list of your own (can be a draft or completed) 

• Learn resources to help you revise your own reference lists 


Audio: To start, then, we are going to do a broad overview. I'm going to talk about a couple things that might be a review for you from our part one APA reference style workshop. And then we are going to talk about some errors that we see in references and then the third part of this webinar is actually applying the techniques and tips, the top errors, and avoiding those errors to a reference list of your own. That's just kind of how this webinar is going to go.  


To start, then, let's think about this in a broad sense.  I am going to first discuss the purpose of a reference list in APA style, what we do with this, and what this is used for. Then we are going to identify some of these common errors that we see a lot in working with student writing. We're going to workshop one of your reference list. If you don't have a reference list handy we have one in the files pod that you can access and work with their. Then we are going to offer some resources, point you in the right direction, things that you can access beyond this webinar to be helpful for you as you go off and create reference lists in the wild or in the real world.   


Visual: The slide changes to: What’s the Purpose of a Reference List? 


  1. Give credit to sources you used in your writing (and avoid plagiarism). 

  1. Give readers the information they need to be able to find those sources. 

  1. Establish your credibility as a scholarly writer. 


Broadly then, what is the purpose of a reference list?  First and foremost these give credit to the sources that you are using within your writing. This is a big deal within academic writing. You need to be giving credit to the sources that you are drawing information from.  Review academic writing to support these are evidence in the rain you are crafting. It is getting really super important to give credit to the people whose work you are drawing from to support your own points. It is a really essential aspect of academic writing. As you can see in this parenthetical here, by doing so by giving the correct credit you are then avoiding plagiarism. You are not getting involved in some of these messier academic integrity thanks.  


Furthermore, you are giving the reader this information the opportunity to see your research process.  You are being transparent about where you are getting information from. So that if a reader were to say, want to access one of the sources that you are using and verify that you are keeping that information in context for example, you are giving them the opportunity to do so.  


And doing this establishes, maintains, your credibility and authority as an academic writer. When you are using reference lists effectively and citation effectively, you basically lay your research bearer and you say to readers this is where I found this information if you want to go and double check that, I'm being fair with how I am presenting or applying this information, this is how you can do so.  Doing so builds your authority it shows your reader that you are not afraid that to have a critical eye put your writing. This is kind of broad strokes here of what we use a reference list for and the role that a reference list plays with an academic writing.   


Visual: Slide changes to: Reference List vs. Bibliography or Works Cited 


An APA reference list gives credit to sources used in your text. 

A reference list is not 

• a list of all of the sources you read, or 

• a selection from sources you cited in your text. 

Audio: Reference lists are subtly different than other notation catalogs, I guess that you have used for example bibliography your works cited, these are in different notation styles you have MLA or Chicago style. APA is just a different style so it has different guidelines and different formatting requirements. And APA reference lists this gives credit to the sources that use within your text. This is an important point to make here. You don't need to list all of the resources that you read in the reference list.  The reference list is only concerned with the scholarship with the sources that you are using specifically in that document. You don't need to tell the reader everything that you've looked at in order to craft this document. You only need to tell the reader what sources you are directly drawing from to support the points you are making in the document.  


Similarly, a reference list is not a selection of the sources you cited. And by that I mean it's not a partial list. You are being complete. All the works that you cite within the text of the document need to have a corresponding reference entry giving the reader that full publication information. That's kind of what this info graph is meant to demonstrate. Your index citations and reference list these are corresponding elements. I'm going to go back here to drive this point home. Every source that use in your document within the text needs to have a reference entry associated with it. Every entry in your reference list needs to be cited at least once within the text of your document these are corresponding elements of an academic piece. You don't need extra information either way. Again all the sources you use no extra sources and don't leave any sources out either.   


Visual: Slides changes to: Citations and the Reference List: A Partnership 


• Citations and the reference list work together  

• Citations in your text tell readers what information came from which sources 

• Reference list entries tell readers how to find your sources 


Audio: As I mentioned this work together citations in your text tells what information came from what source using index site citation in this way you are quoting your paraphrasing you are making it clear to the reader what ideas or what language came from that source specifically. Then in your reference source you are telling the reader how to find that source you are giving that complete information. I mentioned couple of slides ago this is a really great way to build your ability and authority as a writer. Being transparent about your research process leads the reader to believe that you are not hiding anything from them. You are not trying to pull any tricks or take things out of context as you're using them. You are being completely transparent and that makes the reader more apt to believe what you are saying.   


Visual: Slides changes to: Top Errors in Individual Reference List Entries 


Audio: Okay. That was kind of a short review aspects drawing information from part one of our series here.  Now we are going to turn our focus to some of these top errors that we see within an individual reference list. These are things that I'm going to give a lot of information here this would be a good reason for you to download the slides. Don't try to be too overwhelmed by some of this stuff. You are going to be getting more used to this a more comfortable formatting APA reference lists as you get more practice doing so. Don't be overwhelmed by the amount of stuff I'm about to talk about. Also there's mentioning at this point too although myself and Kacy and we work with APA every day. We don't have the entire manual memorize. We are human beings.  If you have a very nuanced question that isn't covering the slides, or free to put that in the Q&A box but just being realistic that there are some questions that we as instructors need to go and look up. When I encounter something -- a rule or nuance within APA style that I don't use often and I'm not sure about, the first thing I do is go to the APA manual to get that letter of the law.  That's what I would encourage you guys to do as well.  Just to make things -- just to we are not going to talk about every APA I just want to set expectations there a little bit. Without further ado then let's get into some of these top errors that we and care encounter and students working with the reference lists.   


Visual: Slide changes to: A Basic Element is Missing or Out of Order 


 Reference entries generally have four basic elements, in the following order: author, date, title, source 

Botto, S. V., & Rochat, P. (2018). Sensitivity to the evaluation of others emerges by 24 months. Developmental Psychology, 54(9), 1723-1734. 

Audio: First there are some basic elements that go into crafting a reference entry. I know that that sounds crazy but that a reference entry for a website looks totally different than a reference entry for jerk than a journal article but these two have a foundational formatting that they follow. I think this is a good place to start as we look at crafting addressing some of these top errors within reference lists. In a reference entry the basic foundational formatting that you are going to see a lot and see in every reference entry essentially is you start with the author you ought offer the date of publication next you are giving the reader the title of the source and lastly you are giving the reader the source information or publication information where that source can be found.  Again, I know this might sound crazy, but reference entries also really do follow this kind of baseline format.  What was it called and where can I find it is a basic thing here.   


Visual: Slide changes to: Incorrectly Formatted Names 


Follow the last name, first name format 

Include the last name(s) in full 

Use an initial + period for first and second names 


Moore, M. G., & Kearsley, G. (2012). Distance education: A systems view of online learning (3rd ed.). Wadsworth. 

Audio: Another -- the second top error that we find in reference list is having to do with authors names. Authors names and APA reference need to be presented in a specific way. Last name first and first name format. But you don't use the author's full first name in APA style. This is a conventional APA style and so instead of using the author's first name you are going to include last name in full and include the initial of the author's first name or their first names if they have multiple first names. You can see an example of this we have the author's last name Moore, MG so we don't miss the author's full name we have the author's full last name followed by the author's initials.  This is something that we do find often times in reference lists. You will see student authors including the author their name in full we see this a lot in citation but just keep in mind that this is what is required in the references list. Last name initials of the author.   


Visual: Slide changes to: Incorrect Capitalization 


Different elements use either 

Sentence case: Capitalize the first word, the first word after a colon, and any proper nouns 

Books, chapters, articles, reports, webpages 

Title case: Capitalize all major words 

Names of academic journals 

Correct (bold and underlines for emphasis):  
Moore, M. G., & Kearsley, G. (2012). Distance education: A systems view of online learning (3rd ed.). Wadsworth. 

Audio: Capitalization is another thing that we do encounter quite a bit in reference lists of student writing. There are a couple different capitalizations that are used in a reference list. First sentence case capitalization is something required when you're working with titles of things like books, chapters, articles, reports, webpages. Sentence case capitalization is your essentially capitalizing the first word of the title and the first word after the colon. Another way to say this would be to say that you are capitalizing the first word of the title and your capitalizing the first word of the subtitle.  To use our example here. Again on the bottom you can see that it is this that is the case a systems view of online learning. We are not capitalizing every word there.  We are only capitalizing the first word which is distance and the first word after the colon which is A. I am sure on the cover of the book they are using a different capitalization than this, however, when presenting this title of the book you need to use sentence case capitalization.   


The other kind of capitalization we encounter is title case capitalization.  Those are capitalizing all the major words. This is something you're going to be more used to seeing but this really happens with journal articles when you're presenting the reader with that specific journal that is going to be using title case capitalization. If you look at the journal article, you are going to use sentence case capitalization when you are telling you're going to use title case -- did I say that wrong?  Title of the journal, article, title of the specific pieces, sentence case, title of the journal that that piece is being drawn from is title case capitalization. Again, there is some capitalization nuances that you need to be aware of when crafting these reference examples are reference entries, excuse me.   


Visual: Slide changes to: Incorrect Use of Italics 


Italicize works published as their own entity (e.g., a book) 

Do not italicize works published within other works (e.g., a chapter within a book) 

Also italicize electronic journal volume numbers (but not issue numbers) 


Donavant, B. W. (2009). The new, modern practice of adult education online instruction in a continuing professional education setting. Adult Education Quarterly, 59(3), 227- 245. 

Moore, M. G., & Kearsley, G. (2012). Distance education: A systems view of online learning (3rd ed.). Wadsworth. 


Audio: Italics is another nuanceanother aspect of crafting the reference entry that you really need to be aware of and be intentional about how you apply it. Certain things within record entries need to be italicized. You would italicize works published as their own entity. For example, a book. This is going to be a title of a book is italicized because it is its own thing.  You do not italicize works published within other works. For example a chapter of a book would not be italicized because that is part of this larger standalone thing of the book.  Also, this is something I encounter a ton of student writing, you need to when you're making a reference entry for electronic journal articles, you need to italicize the volume number. You do not, however, italicize the issue number. You can see this in our example here this Donavant source this is published in 2009 we have the journal there which is in sentence capitalization the journal that this was being drawn from Adult Education Quarterly is going to be entirely capitalization Volume 59, issue three.  You can see that 59 is going to be italicized, however, the three and the parentheticals surrounding the three is not italicize that's an APA nuance that you need to be aware of when crafting a journal article reference entry.   


Visual: Slide changes to: Incorrect and/or Missing Punctuation 


Pay attention to periods, commas, and spacing rules 

A period appears after each reference element (author, date, title, source) 

• No period after a DOI or URL 

Use other punctuation (commas, parentheses) between parts of the same reference element 

Use models and examples 

Correct (punctuation enlarged for emphasis): 

Donavant, B. W. (2009). The new, modern practice of adult education online instruction in a continuing professional education setting. Adult Education Quarterly, 59(3), 227- 245. 


Audio: All right. On to our next topic error. We find an individual reference pages. The next thing we think about when we think about this idea is incorrect and/or missing punctuation. I think this is the one. I don't know if Kacy and Anne would agree with me, but this gives students the most anxiety. Did I miss a comma?  Was this period supposed to be a comma?  And there's really -- I really don't have a lot of good advice on this one you just need to be intentional as you work more with creating reference entries you will get more comfortable in applying these and putting the, here and putting the period there.  As I keep going back to this is something you can practice and you can get better at and develop more of a comfort ability with. If you are not there where the period goes is something that anxiety reducing for you, I sympathize. I have been there. Practice is going to help a lot with this. But to get into this, so as we look at this pay attention to where commas and spaces should be. Be intentional about where they should be. Periods appear after each reference element. In the beginning we -- the author the date the title and that source of publication there. In between these elements you would use a period.  We can see this highlighted in yellow on the slide. After the publication we have a period after the title of the journal article we have a period and then after the publication information the source material the page range specifically we have a period there one thing another nuance to keep in mind here is there would not be a period after a deal DOI or URL as you including in that information. That's just another you nuance that you have to keep in mind as your crafting reference entries.  Further than you would use other punctuation commas parentheses between parts of the reference element. We can see this as we are looking in our example here as we look at the source information or the publication information as part of this reference. We have the title of the journal that published the source adult education quarterly to separate that you would use a comma and separate the volume from the page range.  You would also use a commas you would use periods between different distinct elements to separate those. Within those elements you would then use commas to separate the different information within that specific element.   


Visual: Slide changes to: Incorrect Publication Date 

• If a source doesn’t have a publication date, use “n.d.” (which stands for “no date”) in place of the date 

• Do not use the retrieval date, copyright date, or another date 


World Health Organization. (n.d.) Coronavirus. 

Audio: If there is no date of publication offered, which is common with webpages, you just use the abbreviation n.d. to show the reader that there is no date being offered.  This is a little bit different -- the data publication is different from the retrieval date -- the date you access that information is also different from the copyright date. You don't when use the retrieval date the copyright date or another date and place of a data publication to just kind of force that in. If there's no publication listed, use n.d. This is common for reference entries excuse me, for webpage entries -- I blasted -- I lost my concentration.   


Visual: Slide changes to: Including “Retrieved From” 


• In APA 6, a retrieval phrase (e.g., "Retrieved from") was provided before a URL 

• Generally, in APA 7, do not include “Retrieved from” before a URL 

• Only use the word “Retrieved” in rare cases where the information is designed to change over time (like a Twitter profile); see 9.16 of the APA Style manual for more information 


Vartan, S. (2018, January 30). Why vacations matter for your health. CNN. 

Audio: Another thing that bears mentioning here -- another nuance that you need to be cognizant of or intentional about when you are crafting a reference entry -- is the retrieved from that is common within APA 6. We recently had an APA update this spring about a year ago. We went from APA 6 to APA 7. And APA 6 the retrieval phrase retrieved from was provided before URL. It was used all the time. To make this a little clearer, to remove an element APA 7 did away with that so you do not include retrieved from before URLs students accessing publications before APA 6 you might see this still included. In APA 7 the work you are using you don't want to be using the phrase "retrieved from." That is from a another version you would only use the word "retrieved" in rare cases where the information is designed to change over time for example a twitter profile that is being updated and crafted often you would use retrieved their. Again but this is a pretty  rare case.  Often when I see students using the retrieved case is often not necessary. Unless this is something changing often like a trade twitter profile you do not have to use the word retrieved . In a book that may have a URL you would not use retrieved from any longer. That is something that has been done away with and APA 7. You can see this in our example here. For the CNN source. It doesn't say "retrieved from" before the URL. You simply just present the URL.   


Visual: Slide changes to: Missing DOI 


• DOI: digital object identifier  

• Most direct and permanent way to identify an article 

• Must be presented as a URL 

• Preferable 

• First option 

• Format requires http:// or https:// 

• Free DOI lookup: 



Donavant, B. W. (2009). The new, modern practice of adult education online instruction in a continuing professional education setting. Adult Education Quarterly, 59(3), 227-245. 


Audio: Okay. Another top area we often see as a missing DOI number. I think I said this in the opening chat.  Someone was wondering where they could root retrieved DOI numbers from. DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier.  This is the most correct and direct and permanent way to identify an article. I often think of the DOI number as a fingerprint or Social Security number.  It's something that is individually and permanently tied to that source.  DOI numbers are required and available when you're presenting a DOI number you should presented as a URL and we see that in our example below. That DOI number http is presented as an active link, DOI numbers.  If I would've clicked on this hyperlink DOI, it would take me directly to that source it is a permanent and direct way to access this something that makes it easier on the reader. If that exists, you need to include it.  How do you find out if a DOI exists, you ask? is where you go.  It will prompt you for the name of the author the year the volume this kind of stuff and when she put this and if the DOI number exists, it will tell you and will also give you that DOI number as well. All of you would benefit from bookmarking this book page  To wrap up the DOI thing, if the DOI exists, make sure you use it, and is a place to check for source has a DOI or not.   


Visual: Slide changes to: Unnecessary Retrieval Info 


• If an online source (e.g., a journal article) does not have a DOI and was found through an academic research database, generally, no URL is needed 

• The database name also is not needed 

• The reference will look like the print version 

• In APA 6, if there was no DOI, the home page URL of the journal or publisher was used 


Anderson, M. (2018). Getting consistent with consequences. Educational Leadership, 76(1), 26–33. 

Audio: Branching off a little bit from the DOI, there's also other retrieval information that you might find in the source that is necessary. If it's an online source, for example, a journal article and it does not have a DOI number but was found through a known research database, in that case you wouldn't present a URL. You wouldn't have -- you wouldn't give the reader that URL and if it doesn't have a DOI you wouldn't give that either. In that case that reference you can see example of this below this Anderson Journal author.  The title of that piece followed by the name of the journal that's published in and the publication information there. But since this article does not have a DOI number and it was accessed through an academic research database we would simply omit that URL there. That is unnecessary retrieval information and does not need to be included.  If there was no DOI you would use the homepage but that is no longer the case if it doesn't have a DOI number again, if you access to from an academic research base it is perfectly okay to omit that in presented as a print version.   


Visual: Slide changes to: Inactive Hyperlinks 


URLs (including DOIs) should be active hyperlinks 


Donavant, B. W. (2009). The new, modern practice of adult education online instruction in a continuing professional education setting. Adult Education Quarterly, 59(3), 227-245. 

Audio: I really think we have encountered in active hyperlinks and URLs including DOI's should be active hyperlinks. The exact language in the manual says this document is meant to be accessed electronically you need to use URL hyperlinks.  Again, use active hyperlinks. You can see an example of that below in this source. As I mentioned in a previous slide if I were to click on this it would take me directly to that course which is a really nice feature there. But again present these of as active hyperlinks.   


Visual: Slide changes to: Review Checklist 


  • All entries have the basic four elements: author, date, title, source 

  • Author names: Last name first, then first initial(s) 

  • Capitalization: Title case for journal titles; sentence case for articles, chapters, books, reports, and webpages 

  • Italics: Journal titles and volume numbers 

  • Punctuation: Periods between elements; commas or parentheses within elements) 

  • Date: “n.d.” is used if there is no date 

  • General webpages do not include “Retrieved from”  

  • DOI is included if there is one 

  • Online sources without DOIs: No URL or common academic database name 

  • Hyperlinks (DOIs, URLs) are active 


Audio: These were kind of the big errors that we often find in reference lists. Here's a checklist of them I am not going to read through all of these because I just broke them down individually.  This is kind of a good list to growth through to make sure that your formatting things correctly and applying the specific nuances of APA style in the correct fashion.   


Visual: Slide changes to: Tips & Common Questions 


Audio: Some tips and common questions that we encounter.  


Visual: Slide changes to: Tip #1 


You don’t have to memorize all the rules! 

Use the examples and many resources available for help. 


Audio: Tip number one: You don't have to memorize all the rules. This is a point I have been trying to get across to you. I don't have the rules fully memorized. I am a human. So instead of doing so and thinking that you have to have everything memorized, using examples and resources to of which are linked here, that's really the way to go.  You just don't need to know all that stuff all the time. You're not going to be drawing on these APA nuances constantly. Knowing where to look when you have a question about them is really more important than having every single APA nuance memorize. Again, don't feel like you have to memorize everything. Use the APA manual or use some of the resources that are linked here as helpful guides for you. Don't think that you need to know everything. It's more important to know where to look.   


Visual: Slide changes to: Tip #2 


Work on editing specific types of reference entries at a time 

Focus first on all of the electronic journal articles, then all of the books, then all of the webpages, etc. 

Audio: Tip number two: Work on editing specific types of reference entries at a time. This is a great tip. As you get more comfortable say with journal article formatting or formatting a reference entry for journal article you can then go through your reference list and apply that same formatting to every journal article reference entry that your including their. By doing that all of the same time it is fresh in your mind . Your specifically applying that individual formatting to all of the sources that applies to one and I think that's a great idea too.  When working you can do the same thing for all the books on your reference page. You can do the same for all the webpages. Again, the point here being it's easier to split it up and treat these in groups then rather switching all the formatting guidelines and thinking about a reference entry differently as you go through your list. I hope that's clear.  Format specific sources that are like together.   


Visual: Slide changes to: Tip #3 


Do your own formatting 

Don’t rely solely on citation software, citations provided from the source or database, or other writers’ citations. These can all be incorrect and/or follow an older APA version. 

Audio: Here's another one that I would absolutely echo -- do your own writing that kind of help students with this. What I found and I think Anne and Kacy would echo my sentiments on this. These are dumb computers.  Algorithms that don't have a good grasp of the nuances and/or -- it takes a human eye to make sure that you are doing everything correctly.  Don't rely solely on citation software do these formatting's your self. Now, I don't want to go too far here. If the citation generation software helps you, that's great.  I wouldn't say completely get rid of it.  All I am saying is after you generate a citation through citation generation program, I would then take my human eye and double check that to make sure that it was using the correct version of APA style that is including the right information where it should.  Again, you don't need to do completely away with this thing just make sure you are bring your a human eye to this and double checking it so that you are not relying only on that software.   


Visual: Slide changes to: Workshop 


Visual: Slide changes to: Checking Your Reference List 


1.Open your own reference list 

2.Go through the checklist 

3.Review the information and resources in these slides to help fix the error 

4.Chat: What errors did you find? Do you know how to fix them?  

5.If you have questions or trouble, consult: 

1) Your APA manual 

4) Email us at [email protected] 

My Reference Entries:  


  • All entries have the basic four elements: author, date, title, source 

  • Author names: Last name first, then first initial(s) 

  • Capitalization: Title case for journal titles; sentence case for articles, chapters, books, reports, and webpages 

  • Italics: Journal titles and volume numbers 

  • Punctuation: Periods between elements; commas or parentheses within elements) 

  • Date: “n.d.” is used if there is no date 

  • General webpages do not include “Retrieved from”  

  • DOI is included if there is one 

  • Online sources without DOIs: No URL or common academic database name 

  • Hyperlinks (DOIs, URLs) are active 


Audio: Okay.  This is now the workshop portion of today's webinar, I am going to go on mute here and give you guys about 10 minutes to work with a reference list of your own and apply some of the concepts and some of the tips that I have talked about in the last little bit.  To help you, I have this checklist right here that you can kind of use as you craft or edit one of your reference lists. We also have a poll opened the asked you what are you focusing on in this workshop?  Lastly, for those of you who don't have a reference list on hand there is one in the files pad that you can use as an example too. For the next 10 minutes I am going to give you guys to workshop these references and we are going to come back at about a little after 10 minutes to the top of the hour and we will offer some brief resources and field some student questions at that point.  Take about 10 minutes here and apply some of the steps in the files pod.   


[students work independently and chat in chat box] 


Okay looks like we have five minutes in the workshop activity. I see a lot of you are working with punctuation, finding DOI numbers, and formatting those correctly and really working with online sources. That's awesome. I see all of those aspects a ton in working with student writing. Developing a little more comfort ability and getting practice with that I think is really worthwhile. We have about four more minutes on this workshop, and then we will proceed with the rest of the webinar.   


[students work independently and chat in chat box] 


Okay.  All right I think we will move on. Before we do, applying these concepts and practicing these formatting's is really the key here to developing the feeling of comfort ability and familiarity with these references. Thanks for taking the time to kind of start or sharpen that process within this webinar setting.  Awesome.   


Visual: Slides changes to Resources 


Visual: Slide changes to Featured Resources 


Webinar replay: 

APA Reference List Workshop, Part 1: Top Overall Formatting Errors and How to Fix them 

Common Reference List Examples 
Example entries for journal articles with and without DOIs, books, webpages, and more 

Audio: Resources then to help you. Here's a link to our part one APA reference list part one overall formatting errors and how to fix them.  My colleague Max Philbrook did an awesome presentation last week and that is a companion webinar to this webinar. If you found some of these more technical nuanced aspects of reference lists or formation helpful, I would definitely recommend taking a look of part one and doing more of an overall more global look at reference lists. This is an awesome link the common reference list examples is a great link. I would absolutely recommend you bookmark this in your browser. I use this a lot. I'm sure Anne and Kacy would say they do a lot.  This author's common academic writing journal articles with or without a deal why, books, webpages and there's also things for course materials and legal materials that are really useful there for a wide variety of sources. I would absolutely recommend taking a look there and becoming familiar with that specific link too.  


Visual: Slide changes to: Additional Recommended Resources 


Reference List information 
Website information about reference lists 

APA 6 and 7 Comparison Table 
Highlights of some changes between APA 6 and APA 7. 

Email help 
Email us your APA question for a respond within 24 hours 

APA Style blog 
Searchable, official companion to the APA manual 

The Partnership Between Citations and References (Episode 29) 
WriteCast podcast episode exploring how citations and the reference list work together 


Audio: More stuff, we have a link here to reference list information on our website there's a number of links that's kind of a jumping off point for other resources there.  Our next one down years APA 6 versus APA 7 comparison table this can be useful for you guys who have little experience in APA 6 or better still getting up to speed on the APA 7 changes. We have our general email here that's linked and this is an email with writing instructors like myself and you will get a response within 24 hours there. APA style blog is linked on the slide also. This is searchable and a great companion to the APA manual. It takes some of the more nuanced, maybe more dry language from the APA manual and talks through it a little bit more and more of a human voice. I'm sorry if you think the APA manual is well written I'm really not there. Lastly, we take we have a webcast here the partnership between citations and references episode 29. This is another way to access this information being talked through a webcast podcast type formatting setting better said. If that's something you would find useful there you go, it's linked right there.   


Visual: Slide changes to: Questions? 


Audio: Michael: Okay. We have a few minutes. Anne or Kacy, are there any questions you would.  


Audio: Anne: Thanks so much Michael. We've had a busy chat and Q&A today.  I know there were a lot of questions that we weren't able to get to, so I'm thinking specific types of documents videos, unpublished works, PDFs these sort of things. Could you talk us through your process about how you would go about finding an example about a specific type of reference entry that a student wasn't sure about?   


Michael: That's a great question. Me personally, I have a little bit comfort ability uncovered ability with this already but when I encounter a source I'm uncomfortable with.  The first thing I do is go to the common reference page within the Walden writing center. I know this sounds a little bit like a shameless pitch, but that is actually a good source and that is the first place I would go and see if it's there just because that's ease of access. From there, I would actually -- if I can't find any information on that page, I would then turn to the APA manual and look in the index in the back and see what I can find out there. Generally for reference examples we are talking about a specific chapter within the APA manual, and I would go to that chapter and see if there's anything listed within there. I believe it's chapter 10 within the APA manual has those reference examples.  Yeah, that would be my process if I can't find anything about it which actually does happen because a manual doesn't specify every single possible source that you could come in contact with us. In some of those cases, I tried to find something that is closest to make a judgment call there. But generally, start with the webpage and then I will go right to the manual to get that more letter of the law determination there.  It's a great resource. Other questions?   


Kacy: Michael, we had a great question and I am going to try to word this -- it's a little quick and confusing -- a student asked if they have a meeting for course and that reading used multiple sources from the same author published in the same year so that it has serious and to differentiate between those and I also want to use one of those sources in my own paper, do I still need to use the same seriation from the original source?  Does that make sense? 


Michael:  I think I got it.  This is a pretty nuanced question and when you don't come in contact with often.  What I'm thinking from your question, you have the source that you are drawing from and in that source there is a number of publications from the same author in the same year. So then, as Kacy points out, you would use seriation there -- after another to distinguish between these two. If, you are drawing one of those sources, say, you are drawing the second one alphabetically the one that has a b after the publication but you only need that one specific source, you would not use that seriation.  You would just treat that as a standalone source from the publisher or author that year. Did I understand the question correctly?   


Kacy: I think I might have expanded and the student was asking using it for their course itself is using multiple sources.  Yes, I think you answered it perfectly. Thanks.   


Michael: Just to elaborate a little more, and this often times you will find sources that are using multiple authors.  You'll find multiple sources that are using the same author in the same year.  But this is this seriation marks happen because there are multiple marks of those sources if you're only using one of those it's not you are not you only have one source so there's nothing to be differentiated against meaning that seriation would not be required or not be necessary.  Any other questions before we wrap up?   


Anne: Thanks Michael and Kacy. I think that's a great segue.  We have a couple minutes left to point to the email address on the slide here. [email protected] and if you have a question that's complicated like the last one, or even if it's not complicated and you need help with the reference entry and you've tried the manual and you tried the website and you are still not sure about it or do not know what to do next, feel free to email us at that email address and we will be able to help you out.  We have one minute left.  Again, I want to thank everybody so much for joining us today and for bearing with us some technical hiccups.  We'll be looking into those to make sure we can make our webinars the best experience for you as we can. We have a feedback survey that is linked in the links pod that will also open when I close the room and will come out through email along with the recording, and we would love your feedback. This is a newish kind of a format with us with the workshop, and we would really appreciate hearing what you think of it. And what you would like to see in future webinars.  Thanks in advance for taking a moment to take a look there too.  The recording will come out soon, hopefully this week if not early next week, as soon as that is already. If you missed part one, do check that out as well to learn about overall formatting of your reference lists. Thanks again so much, everybody. Have a great rest of your day. We'll see you at our next webinar.   

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