Answered By: Rachel Willard
Last Updated: Jun 30, 2016     Views: 1532

Any kind of personal communication that you use as a source of information must be cited in the text of your work. Personal communications are not cited in your references list.

Personal communications include interviews, but they may also include other person-to-person interactions such as phone consultations, private letters, or even personal e-mails.


Citation Examples

  • J. Johnson (personal communication, December 3, 2012) explained that APA is something students learn to appreciate.
  • Using APA effectively is a skill that takes practice (J. Johnson, personal communication, December 3, 2012).


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